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Keeper of the Scrolls

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Posted -  27/04/2004  :  17:31


When I first took an interest in the local history of Barnoldswick I naturally looked at what published work existed. To be truthful, it was very disappointing. But then I came across a manuscript history which had never been published which was written around 1914/1915 by William P Atkinson, a local tailor and outfitters. In the later version there seem to have been further drafts and additions as dates as late as 1922 are mentioned in the added text. The most complete draft carries this inscription on the second page; Presented to Mr and Mrs Alban Atkinson (unbound) by his father W. P. Atkinson, 36 Skipton Road Barnoldswick.

What follows is a goldmine for the local historian as it is full of the ‘trivial’ facts that never seem to find their way into more formal histories. It is a gold mine of names and incidents that give a very clear impression of the close-knit and basically caring society of the time.

In all the years I have been using Atkinson as a source I have found few errors. He can be regarded as entirely trustworthy. Embedded in the text are clues as to what his views were on certain matter in the town but which good manners and a healthy respect for the power of those in authority dictated. Reading between the lines, while he pays lip service to the works of the Bracewells he has his doubts and quite correctly identifies the end of the Bracewell hegemony with the take-off point for modern Barlick.

His views on the benefits of access to rational and healthy exercise as a relief from the pressures of work are startlingly modern. In many ways William Atkinson was a man born before his time and what he describes as his ‘Little History’ is a marvellous resource and well worth close reading

A word about copyright. I am certain that no copyright exists in this work and so I felt safe in digitising it so that it could have a far wider audience. If I have offended anyone by doing this I apologise. On the whole though, I have a feeling Old William would be tickled pink if he knew that his work was regarded as important enough to disseminate more widely. What would he have made of the world wide web I wonder. Read on and learn, he has much to teach you.

SCG/27 April 2004

W.P. Atkinson - Part 1


Very Ancient History
BARNOLDSWICK or, as it is more anciently called, Bernulfeswick and also Bernoldswick, is a place of great antiquity and probably derives its name from Bernulf, a Saxon Thain and ‘wick’ which according to some of our Saxon glossarists signifies a grange, villa, mansion castle or fortified place. However this may be, it was most certainly a place of some importance during the Saxon period of domination and at the time of Edward the Confessor’s survey it was in the possession of one Gamel, a Saxon.

1041 Edward the Confessor was crowned king in 1041 and he reigned 25 years which brings us up to the date of William the Conqueror, namely 1066.

The Gamel, above mentioned, had been the Saxon possessor at the time of King Edward’s survey and that Berenger de Todeni was the first Norman grantee, and that he transferred it to Roger of Poictou who was at this time Lord of Lancaster and also of Clitheroe Castle.

This great statistical account of the condition of England was drawn up by the Special Commissioners sent down into every shire to make enquiry into its resources, population and ownership. Therein was set down the name of every landholder and the valuation of his manors and an account of the services and money due from him to the King. We therefore conclude that this Roger de Poictou was in possession of Barnoldswick at this time.

The ancient Parish of Bernoldswick comprehended Bracewell, Marton, and perhaps Thornton. From the records of Doomsday it appears that King William bestowed upon his favourite warrior Roger of Poictou who had contributed so largely to his victory at the battle of Hastings, three hundred and ninety eight Manors. Viz; three in Essex; fifty nine in Suffolk; Ten in Norfolk; eleven in Nottinghamshire; Seven in Derbyshire; forty four in Lincolnshire; Seventy six in Yorkshire; and one Hundred and eight in Lancashire, including that fine tract or Country lying between the rivers Mersey and Ribble, from their source to the ocean, and in which Barnoldswick was included, so that Barnoldswick must have formed part of those vast possessions bestowed by the Conqueror on Roger of Poictou.

Roger, like the other great Leaders of the Norman Army among whom England was divided, made a sub-division among his Barons, who held their land from him by Military Service on the same tenure by which he held his from the Sovereign.

Sensible of the oppression exercised upon the Saxons, he seems to have been apprehensive of their rising against his Countrymen, and prudently provided the means of defence, not only by building Castles, but by the appointment of those Barons on whose fidelity he could rely to places which were most liable to annoyance from an enemy. According to ‘Gregson’s Fragments" as quoted by Corry in his History of Lancashire, we are informed that Roger Pictavensis, then Earl of Lancaster, prudently stationed his barons in the most dangerous places to preserve his Earldom in quiet, and that amongst the hills of Clidero, he placed ILBERT DE LACY a Baron, near the adjacent passage into Yorkshire.

Ilbert Le Lacy, a Norman Knight in the train of William the Conqueror, had vast estates allotted to him by that Sovereign, One Hundred and Fifty Manors in the West Riding of Yorkshire, besides others in Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. This Knight established himself at Pontefract and built a castle there and enclosed it within a Park eight miles in circumference.

Ilbert De Lacy died early in the reign of King William Rufus and these vast domains descended to his eldest Son Robert and afterwards to Robert's son Ilbert and finally to Ilbert's Brother Henri de Lacy. We may here presume that these large estates about Bernoldswick had become the possessions of The De Lacy family, and that they (either from death or other causes) no longer remained in the possession of Roger of Poictou.

1147. Henry de Lacy in performance of a vow made during a dangerous sickness founded a Monastery at Barnoldswick, began the building, finished the offices and necessary Lodgings, and in the year 1147 translated thither twelve Monks and Ten Conversi under Alexander prior of Fountains, who named the place Mount Saint Mary. For the support of his new foundation he assigned the whole town of Barnoldswick, and probably the Church too: as we are expressly assured, that Henry Murdoc, Archbishop of York, by his pontifical authority confirmed it to the monks. [We are now quoting from Whitaker's History of Craven] Nothing is more blind or mischievous than Liberality, when it loses sight of Justice, for here was a Rector in possession of his benefice and a parish with legal claims upon their own Church neither of whom, it seems, were disposed to make a compliment of their rights to these intruders, The Priest, and his clerks continued to perform divine offices in the Choir and the people assembled as usual, but the Monks bore this inoffensive and even laudable conduct with such extreme impatience that the Abbot, in a rage, levelled the church with the ground.

Even our historian Serlo acknowledged that this was done ‘minus consulte’ The dispute was not brought before the Metropolitan, who was himself a monk. But it seems probable that Alexander had some apprehension of an impartial sentence, and, therefore avocated the cause to Rome. This step had the intended effect, The Rector and parishioners were put to silence, and their plea dismissed with contempt; for it seemed a Godly work, and deserving of encouragement. that a Church should be destroyed to make room for a Monastery; that a lesser good should give way to a greater; and that cause prevail which would ultimately be most beneficial to the interests of religion.

I (says Doctor Whitaker) never think of this sentence without astonishment. The pernicious doctrine that ends sanctify means prevailed it seems thus early in the Church, and a vile casuistry had silenced alike the voice of natural conscience and
the precepts of Scripture. Such judges, though Ecclesiastics of the highest rank never reflected, perhaps did not even know that a ‘woe’ had been denounced in the Old Testament against ‘him that buildeth his house by iniquity, and his chambers by wrong.’, or that is had been forbidden in the New Testament to ‘do evil that good may come’ The work however, thus inauspiciously begun, did not prosper in the hands of the Monks; The climate would not suffer their crops to ripen and after six
years of labour and disappointment, they abandoned Barnoldswick in despair June 14th, 1153, and retired to Kirkstall. ‘The Doctor's astonishment’ writes the Author of the History of Kirkstall Abbey, is the only thing astonishing in the affair. Long previous to the above period, the See of Rome had applied the same infamous principals to its own aggrandisement, and has since continued the practice on every seasonable [sic] and safe occasion. The consecrated Banner with which the Pope presented William Duke of Normandy to inspire into his Army a holy zeal for seizing and adding England to the spiritual Territory of the Pontiff was stained with this abomination.

After the abandonment of Barnoldswick by the Monks not many years elapsed before the Parish Church was rebuilt, though at a distance of a mile and a half from the former. This change of situation was intended for the convenience of Marton which did not long want it as we are told that the Church at Marton must have been founded and the Parish separated from that of Barnoldswick previous to the year 1188.

The same may be said of Bracewell Church, for in the Feoffment in which that benefice was conveyed to Kirkstall by Richard, son of Roger Tempest, who lived in the Reign of Henry 1st. betwixt 1100 and 1135 we have satisfactory proof of this assertion. Also, with respect to the Church at Thornton, the tradition is that Thornton, which also included the Townships of Eureby (Earby) and Kelbrook, was originally a portion of Barnoldswick. And it is presumed that the Church was built about the same time as Marton or shortly after that period, and. thence would become separated from Bernoldswick. History tells us that the proposed Monastery which was intended for Bernoldswick, were never advanced beyond the humble offices constructed for the reception of the Monks by Henry De Lacy the founder. Yet after six centuries and a half, the situation of the Monastery is still remembered, and in some degree visible. It stood on the brook immediately to the west of the village where tile and lead pipes and other articles have been dug up within memory. (Dr. Whitaker's 1805 Edition, page 57).

The writer having searched all through this Old history, is unable to discover any actual date of the original Saxon church inhabitants up to the time of its destruction by the infuriated Abbot and his Monks from Fountains Abbey, who arrived here in 1147. Also the same may be said as to the exact situation of that sacred Edifice which has allays remained a matter of doubtful uncertainty.

Again the exact date of the erection of the present St, Mary-le-Gill Church is somewhat confused, with the departure of the Monks in 1153. A few years must have elapsed before the new Parish Church was built at Gill. and taking four years or more for the accomplishment of this work, this would bring the date of the St, Mary-le-Gill Church up to 1157, which is a most reasonable conclusion, and the writer cannot understand how or why the date of Gill Church is so often erroneously given as 1147 which was the date of the advent of the Monks who lived here for six years afterwards.

[End of the first period]

Medieval history up to 1800

The old Parish Church of St Mary le Gill stands upon the brink of a deep glen, from whence it derives its name and is in close proximity to the parish of Thornton-in-Craven.

The Choir, from its long lancet windows, three of which occupy their original position in the East end, together with its slender buttresses, seems to be the identical building by which the Monks replaced their own works of havoc, about the reign of King Henry the second 1154 to 1189

But the Church has been raised at a much later period. The steeple which is strong and handsome, has the following date CCCXXIIII intended for 1524 the millenary number being omitted. There are three bells, all having inscriptions on as follows; First Bell, ‘Peace and good neighbourhood’ date omitted; second bell, ‘Render unto Caesar etc. And unto God etc'’ 1723; Third bell, ‘William Drake, Churchwarden 1723’

These bells were re-hung in the year 1880, and new floor and also new framework by Mr. Thomas Mallaby of Masham, at a cost of £65-10-6.

In the year 1913 a new oak credence bracket was placed on the North side of the Communion, and into which was inserted the old oak block, showing the arms of Kirkstall Abbey, namely three swords in fess, this relic formerly was underneath the Chancel Window and immediately over the Lord's Table and the same is undoubtedly the most ancient piece of carving now in the possession of the Church,

In a ditch, near this Church, were found some years ago an Old English tankard of wood with a broad rim of copper gilt and richly chased, together with a small jar of bell-metal, they were probably thrown there in some of the plundering excursions of the Scots.

The Parish of Barnoldswick contained the hamlets of Salterforth, Brockden, and Barnoldswick Coates.

William Drake Esquire, Justice of the Peace in 1667, was the Owner of Barnoldswick Coates Estates (which at one time belonged to Salley Abbey). He had a Son and Grandson William successively possessed of the estate, the latter of whom died in the year 1758.

The Drakes built Coates Hall and after the year 1758 these Estates became the property of William Bagshaw Esq. The gravestones of the Drakes' family are on the floor within the Communion of Gill Church. Three infant children of the late Rev. R. Milner were given the same sacred resting place, Adelaide was interred there within the writer's memory.

1183. In this year the Barnoldswick Coates Estates were purchased from Mr. Bagshaw by Mr, Roundell’s Trustees, and during his Minority. And the same are now the property of Lieutenant Colonel Roundell of Gledstone House. Since 1915

the Gledstone Estate and including Coates. Colonel Roundell has disposed of his Estate to Sir Amos Nelson.

The Old Monks House, Barnoldswick, and also the Monkroyd Field which still retain their old names. Monks House (now rebuilt and in the possession of Mr. Mark Hacking) was originally the Farmhouse, and had a saw-pit in front of same. in the days of Old John Dean, who had sons, Thomas Benjamin, William, Henry and Aminadab. The central ward now stands on the greater part of the land once belonging to that farm. The Monkroyd Field is said to be the site on which the Monastery of the Twelfth Century was to have been built. It may be presumed that the Monks' at that time were in some way connected with the Monks' House. There is a date at the back entrance of Monks House 1735 which no doubt has been put there during some alterations of same.

The following is a list of incumbents to Gill Church, Barnoldswick from 1596 to 1890-1923.

1596 Robert Coldocke
1613 John Eastwood
1626 Francis Peele
1643 George Stott
1671 Thomas Garfot
1678 Isaac Lancaster. (also vicar of Bracewell)
1717 Arthur Tempest. (also vicar of Bracewell)
1750 Charles Pinder
1751 John Riley
1772 Wilfred Burton. (also minister of Newchurch in Pendle)
1785 David Greenough
1791 Edward Capstick
1820 Mordaunt Barnard BA
1836 Richard Milner BA. (first vicar)
1870 Samuel Henry Ireson MA
1879 Thomas Ayes
1887 John Woods
1890 Frederick William Patten
1923 John Calderbank MA

Even so it is now as in the days of Homer when the great poet wrote:

‘Like leaves on trees, the race of man is found,
Now green in youth, now withering on the ground,
Another race, the following spring supplies,
They fall, successive, and successive rise,
So generations in their course decay,
So flourish these, when those are passed away.

1694. The Baptist church at Barnoldswick
is acknowledged to be the oldest in this part of the Country. The first records are unfortunately lost, and the real knowledge begins with Crossley's purchase of property in 1694. The Church register dates from 1697. There was however, a Church here as early as 1500, for at that time there were at least six eminent Baptist families in and around Barnoldswick namely - the Mitchells, Higgins, Edmondsons. Hargreaves, Barretts, and Greenwoods. In 1661 certain property consisting of a messuage, barn, croft and garden, held in trust by three of the members namely Edmondson, Higgins and Watson, was conveyed to John Taylor, another member, who in 1694 transferred it to David Crossley the Minister of the Church whom in 1701 transferred it to an Elder of the Church named John Barrett who ultimately bequeathed it to the society as a meeting house for the perpetual use of the Baptists at Barnoldswick. This property still remains in the possession of this Church also this good Christian man John Barrett, before his death made a Deed of Gift to the Baptist Church as follows: I, John Barrett, of Wood End in the Parish of Barnoldswick, in the County of York, yeoman, do Give devise and bequeath unto William Mitchell, Barnoldswick; John Hargreaves of Bracewell, Yeoman; John Greenwood the elder and John Greenwood the younger of Cockerhill, Foulridge, All that messuage, Garden and one close called Park or Parrock, situate in Barnoldswick afore said. The Trustees to pay all rents or incomes arising from this property half yearly to the Minister or Supplies of the Baptist Church at Barnoldswick (abbreviated). This Deed of Gift was dated 1731.

In the year 173- another member named William Mitchell bequeathed the sum of £30 on similar conditions. The Baptist historian tells us of the sufferings and trials of this Church in its early years, and even of the twice imprisonment in York Castle of one of their preachers from Bacup named William Mitchell about A.D. 1664.

Mr. Alvery Jackson, a minister who introduced the singing of Psalms and Hymns and Spiritual Songs, had a very severe task in persuading this Church to abandon their Songless Service. He died in 1704. The next Minister was John Parker, he died in 1793. After which Nathan Smith became very popular as a Minister and in A.D. J797 erected the new Chapel which was considered to be a handsome and commodious sanctuary. Nathan Smith died in 1831.

1770. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which traverses across the whole of this Parish viz. Coates, Barnoldswick and Salterforth was commenced in 1770, and not entirely completed until the year 1816. The total estimated cost being one million pounds. The summit pool, which commences at Greenberfield, has a fall eastward to Leeds of 409 feet, and has 44 locks. And at the Barrowford Locks, the fall westward to Liverpool is 431 feet. This gives the approaching sea Level.

The summit tunnel at Foulridge, was commenced in 1792 and completed in 1796 and is 1630 yards long. 1793, Construction of the large Reservoir at Foulridge, This is the largest of the four reservoirs on the summit, one of which is partly in the Parish of Barnoldswick on the slopes of White-Moor. The capacity of these four Reservoirs which supply the canal for 128 miles is as follows:- The Great Reservoir, which was raised in 1812 covers 108 acres, the greatest depth 13 feet, and contains when full, 480,870,000 gallons. The Slipper Hill 12 acres, 26 feet deep capacity 48,825,000 gallons; White-Moor, 31 feet deep, capacity 160,290,000 gallons, no acreage given. The new Reservoir constructed in 1865; 35 acres, depth 28 feet 6 inches, capacity omitted.

One of the best sources of supply to the White-Moor Reservoir, is the well known Lister Well spring in this Parish. In addition to this last named Spring, there are also two other large springs in this Parish which contribute to the support of the summit pool of this great waterway, namely the White-House and the Hall Spout springs, both of which are situated in the township of Salterforth. These never-failing sources of supply are invaluable, particularity so in the dry seasons of the year. No one can grudge these natural resources becoming so useful. May we not more reasonably ask ourselves what would Barnoldswick have been without the Canal and particularly so up to about A.D. 1850? When there were three Limestone quarries and also a freestone quarry near Salterforth. The Limestone quarries were named Gill Rock, Barnsey Rock, and Rainhall Rock. All these were sending forth an amount of stone and also a portion of lime in the scores of heavily laden canal boats to their different destinations, which all required enterprise and manual labour, and which realised and brought home the one thing needful at this time, namely, money. It is well known that the three limestone quarries have been long closed down. The Barnsey Rock was used as a tip, and its place is not now recognisable, next the Gill Rock is also being used for a similar purpose, and the Rainhall Rock, is also dormant with its ‘Little Cut’ and may at some future time become a pleasure resort. We will now consider a few of the inconveniences of this Parish before the Canal was opened for traffic in A.D. 1796, and taking into further consideration that there were no railways near Barnoldswick for fifty years after this date.

Coals, comes first as an important necessity and an indispensable commodity, and where did they come? Out of Lancashire most likely, and in all probability from Marsden, some nine miles distance. Fancy a journey of eighteen miles in order to provide a load of coals for one's home. However coals were very cheap in those days, only about five pence per hundredweight at the pit's mouth (a bit of consolation). And thus, taking this important item into consideration. a load of coals with the long journey and the cost of carriage included would not amount to anywhere near the same money in 1796 as they do at the present day in 1915 and all this has been caused by the enormous advance in the price of coals during the last sixty years.

Also it may be asked, how did all the groceries and the other needful staff of life find their way to Barlick? It way be assumed that all this work was left for the carriers to accomplish, while even if the flour and the meal were ground at the mill with its water-wheel, the grain would not be forthcoming, and the same would have to be procured from distant places elsewhere as this part of Craven had ceased to be ‘grain growing’ and became almost entirely a grazing district. In corroboration of this statement, it may be said that in 1850 there were only three corn-fields in the whole Parish, namely, one on Coates Flatt Farm situated between Barnsey Rock and. Hudson's Meadow. The next was on Coates Hall Farm on the right hand side of Gill Lane and terminating at the last gate of the same. (there was formerly a gate at the entrance of this lane) The Third and last Cornfield was on Greenberfield Farm. These Corn-Fields are now entirely abandoned and not an acre of Corn has been cultivated in this Parish for the last fifty years, all the same being used for grazing purposes.

The following bit of "good advice" is to be seen near Rimming ton, inserted in the wall and on a stone tablet and in close proximity to this Parish.

1819 Field House, Wm, Rushworth.

Repeat no grievances
Study to be quiet
And mind your own business.

Surely in this little bit a great deal is enjoyed. And happy is the man who can accomplish the same.

1800 - One branch of industry in Barnoldswick at the end of' the Eighteenth Century was the old cotton mills which undoubtedly were entirely dependent on their water-wheel up to the time when the Canal brought coals into this Parish, after which the steam engine became so popular. There was a steam engine at Mitchell’s Mill (better known as Clough) and also one at the old Coates Mill. The steam Engine was the signal for a great improvement in the production and output of the necessary weft and warp which was required by the hand-loom weavers in order to meet the increasing demands of the population for this useful commodity called 'Calico Cotton’. The two small mills at Gillions had no Steam Engines.

We may here reflect upon the useful part those little old mills played, and which was so conducive to the comforts of bygone generations, although in ruins here, or elsewhere it may be up Dales as far as Arncliffe they 'yet speak' of the part they played before either canal or may-be steam engines became known in this part of Craven.

Since the following article on Salterforth Bottoms was written, and also a similar traditional account of Whitemoor Enclosure in 1815, the Historian has learned that an official document relating to both these improvements may be seen on payment of a small sum. The former one being deposited at Thornton, and the latter at the vicarage Barnoldswick and called the Butler Award.

(tradition tells us) which extended from Sough Bridge and across the County Brook into Lancashire was at one time a marshy swamp and the cause of much low fever or hague. This was however entirely remedied by the assistance of the Authorities in London, by causing deep cuttings to be dug out, into which the land was properly drained, hence all those straight cuttings prove that they are there to answer the purpose for which they were originally intended, and that they are not natural water courses. The next paragraph is devoted to a few old dates, the dearth of which is to be regretted, (on buildings particularly) Gill Church Steeple, 1524. Friends' meeting house, commonly called Quakers Chapel at Salterforth, date on guesthouse 1652; date on gravestone at same place Thomas Wilson of Thornton in Craven 1714. I think those dates correct the information given by the late Mr. Stephen Hall, in an old Manuscript-book of his. That gentleman may have been wrongly informed when he gave 1764 as the date of the Quakers Chapel. The Inghamite's meeting-House at

Salterforth was built in 1764. (this is taken from reliable history) Date on old barn at Barnoldswick Coates 1674. Date on old barn in New Close Meadow C.B. 1670 (now pulled down) Date on old house in Barnoldswick 1714, this is at the top of Back Lane on opposite side of Baptist school. Date on oldest grave-stone in Gill
Churchyard C.B. 1609, this stone lies a few yards east of the little door, there may be some stones inside the Church of equal antiquity.

A little humour may be pardoned here, before closing this period. The writer admits his inability to find any information regarding the date or period as to when, or where, or how the middle syllable became detached and omitted from the word Barnoldswick, and also the substitution of the letter 'L' in place of the letter “W” at the beginning of the last syllable, thus curtailing and rendering a more abbreviated and familiar expression, namely "Barlick", which has been used from time immemorial by the inhabitants, and in preference to the twelve distinct letters of the alphabet which are necessary in forming the original and proper word, Barnoldswick. Before proceeding, I introduce another kindred incident, namely there is a small hamlet about three miles distance from either High or Low Bentham and about one mile up the river Greta from Burton in Lonsdale, this place is spelt exactly the same way as ours, namely, Barnoldswick, and it is also remarkable to find the people in that district have a familiar, although not abbreviated name, and which may be considered rather clumsy, namely Bar-ne-wig. This cannot be compared equal to the way in which it is here rendered, namely Barlick. The simple hint arising out of and conveyed by this word, may be applied in various ways at the readers discretion.

[End of Medieval History]

OLD HISTORY; 1800 TO 1845.
IT must have been gratifying to the inhabitants of this Parish who lived in the early years of the Nineteenth Century, to the fact, that a single horse could then by boat, bring within easy reach of all, over forty tons of useful commodities which they could well remember a few years before would have required the same animal some fifty journeys in order to accomplish similar result.


1802 Barnoldswick 769 1821 Barnoldswick 1334
ditto Brogden 189 Brogden 239
ditto Coates 45 Coates 97
ditto Salterforth 396 Salterforth 686
total 1401 2350

This gives an increase of 949, for the nineteen years up to the end of 1821. This increase compares very favourably with the Statistics given regarding three of our Neighbouring Towns by Mr. Carr in that gentleman's ‘Annals of Colne’ to whom I am
indebted for several items of reliable information.

1801 POPULATION 1851

Colne 2,476 Colne 6,644

Burnley 2234 Burnley 20,820

Accrington 1,946 Accrington 7481

1806. Wesleyan Chapel or meeting house, Barnoldswick, otherwise called Methodist Chapel or Preaching House. Erected on a site at the top of Jepp Hill, said to have been a deed of gift from a Mr. Smith of Thornton Hall in Craven, and owner of the plot of land on which the Chapel was built and conveyed 31st of October 1806.

And for several years about this time. Enclosing of the Whitemoor Common called the ‘Intake’ which divided this great tract of moorland into the numerous Allotments which are now seen. This work was (more or less) superintended by a Government Official named Wasney Toothill, and provided employment for stone-getters or quarry-men, and also for dry-wallers or masons. Most of the stone required was quarried in the separate Allotments and was called top-rock, forming excellent material for the building of all the miles of strong and substantial fence walls required in this great enterprise. All this work was very much appreciated and doubly welcome at this time of depression, when poverty and distress was so very prevalent, and manual labour at a stand-still in Barlick. After the completion of this great work, the various allotments were sold and conveyed to the several different gentlemen, land-owners of the parish, and were used by the farmers for summering a part of their sheep, or in other instances, they were utilized for preserving game for shooting purposes. There was also a small plot of land supposed to be a tenth granted to the Churches of Bracewell and St. Mary-le-Gill, as an augmentation of the living of those two poor parishes. The aforesaid disposal of the land now enclosed, was rendered necessary in order to re-pay the treasury and defray the expenses incurred in accomplishing so great an undertaking, and erecting maybe nearly twenty miles of substantial fence walls on Whitemoor Common.

A little episode in connection with this subject may interest my readers, namely, a retired old Barlick Veteran whose name was George Sharpe (Old George Sharpe was Grandfather to the !ate George Rushworth Esquire of Colne whose Mother's Maiden name was Mary Sharpe of Barlick) who took a fancy as a hobby in his leisure hours to breaking up and enclosing a bit of this ‘nobody’s land’ at Sandyford. On discovering this, George was summoned to York and on his appearance in Court, a swell K.C. put the first question ‘George Sharpe, have you had your breakfast?’ ‘Well’ said George, "I had summat but had rather had my porridge on Whitemoor.’ KC. No equivocation George, were you ever ten miles away from Whitemoor in your life?’ ‘Well’ Says George, ‘I've been years in India. I've been in China, and some years at Gibraltar.’ This brought down the Court, and roars of laughter followed, during which the KC hung down his head, after having found out that old George was not the ‘flat’ for which he took him to be but as ‘sharp’ as a swell K.C, from London. George was now treated as a hero and every consideration was given to his case, and the matter was amicably settled by the Court.

The Town of old Barlick was at this time deprived of its old play ground, called 'the ‘Village Green’ in the centre of the town. This plot of spare ground was sold by
the Authorities, or Guardians at that time, and nearly twenty back-to-back houses and cellar-dwellings, and also a Public-house called "Commercial Inn" was erected on the site. All the houses and cellar-dwellings on the front side, which were approached from Town-gate (now called ‘Church Street’) had not the least sanitary accommodation and consequently had to tramp round the gable at either end of the row where two separate yards were provided for all the block which included front houses with cellar dwellings and also the houses in the yards at the back. Truly a joint stock affair. Whatever may be thought of this transaction, it is well to reserve criticism on the action of those in authority at this time, one thing suggests itself, namely, that they might be prompted by a desire to accumulate funds which could be utilized for the benefit of the Town in the near future, and knowing that they would shortly be called upon to remedy a long felt want which existed at the bottom of the town and in one of the main thoroughfares caused by the town beck being entirely open and flowing across the public highway, thus forming a great inconvenience and a nuisance to all vehicular traffic. However the case might be, we ought to use gentle expressions regarding the actions of those who held responsible positions at this time and give them the credit for doing their best for the welfare of the town, and thus speak respectfully of the dead.

or near this time, erection and construction of the Town Bridge as described by an old native of Barlick. The foot-bridge at the bottom of Lamb Hill and the new culvert over the stream was a great length on account of the diagonal position of the beck and the roadway. There was a steep rise out of the watercourse, more so at the Lamb Hill side than at the Westgate side, the watercourse being at that time five feet below the present level of the new Town Bridge when completed. It may be easily imagined what Collar-work was forced upon the poor horses at this particular dip in the roadway. All the coals or Raw Cotton for Clough Mill (there being no road then through Monks Fold) and all traffic Westgate or Town-Head-way, and also the farmers requirements, this had to cross the town-beck, which was sometimes in flood, and always so when the water-wheel was running at Mitchell's mill.

Just fancy poor old Dick Water or old Kitty Crier, (neither of whom could grip a cabbage betwixt their knees) with whip in one hand and holding the horse's head with the other hand plunging through Town beck on their errand of mercy to supply the wants of the folk in Westend and Town-Head district with pecks of coal at three pence a peck measure, supposed to be a half hundredweight. All these improvements have long since been entirely forgotten and at this day we may safely say that not ten per cent of the inhabitants even know that a culvert exists, or that a beautiful stream is wending its way under one of the principal streets commonly called Town Bridge.

My readers will naturally want to know the name of the old native of Barlick to whom reference is made in the early part of this subject, the same was Mr. John Lamb’s daughter, Alice, late of Lamb Hill, who afterwards became the wife of Mr. Benjamin
Dean. This venerable old lady, Mrs. Dean, outlived all records of a similar nature in Barlick being born on the brink of this stream in 1822 and lived the whole of her life In the same house and could well remember the building of Town-Bridge when she was a little girl. Mrs. Dean died in 1908 at the ripe old age of 86 years.

1824. New stable outside Gill Church Yard erected, Mordaunt Barnard incumbent of Barnoldswick and also Rector of Thornton-in-Craven. This was before the "Plurality of Livings" was abolished.

1828 - Erection of property at Town Head by the Barnoldswick Friendly Society.

1828 - Crowfoot Row built in Barlick Lane district (about seven houses) all minus back doors in one long block and not back-to-back.

The second floor in most of those houses used for handlooms and bedroom combined, with the bobbin-engine into the bargain. The writer can verify all these statements, having had the privilege of visiting two Uncles named George Livsey and James Dugdale, (although into the teens of years after this time) they lived in Crow-Row and in addition to weaving themselves, they also employed several others. Some of my own sisters were thus employed during the time when I visited those places of industry, namely, workshop and bedroom combined in which a single loom was called a 'pair of looms'.

1829. First power-loom introduced into a Colne Mill.

1834 - The Oddfellows Club at Barlick erected a block of three-storied houses, with entrances in Town-gate and on the left side of Jepp Hill, extending up to the Wesleyan Chapel. It is rather remarkable that all those buildings were being erected at a time when trade was so bad, and poverty prevailed over the whole district.

1837. Queen Victoria, born in 1819, began to reign in 1837. Crowned 26th June 1838.

1837. St. James' Church Barnoldswick erected.

1837. St Thomas’s church, Barrowford erected.

1838. Kelbrook. ‘To the Glory of God and to the memory of her grandfather Henry Richardson, and of her father, Henry Richardson Currer, successively rectors of Thornton in Craven, Frances Mary Richardson builds and endows the church of St Mary’s, Kelbrook.

1838. Hudson’s Buildings erected at Town Bridge.

1838 - A discriminative account of Barnoldswick, chiefly taken from a West Riding Directory to which will be added short references to three of our neighbouring Parishes and taken from the same volume of that date, namely 1838.

BARNOLDSWICK, a large village, near the Skipton Canal, in a valley sheltered by lofty fells, five miles north of Colne and four miles South-East of Gisburn, has in its townships Five Cotton Mills, 1683 inhabitants, 2030 acres of land belonging to R. H. Roundell Esq. and Sir J.L.L. Kaye, and several other proprietors. The Parish of Barnoldswick or Gill comprises also, Brogden, Coates and Salterforth. A monastery was founded here in 1147, but after a troubled residence of six years, the Monks pulled down the building and removed to Kirkstall. The Parish Church (St. Mary-le-Gill) is an ancient edifice, on the brink of a deep Glen, from which it obtained the name of Gill Church. It is a perpetual curacy valued at £160 and augmented since 1731, with £1.000 of Queen Anne's Bounty in Parliamentary grants, and £200 given by Sir J.L.L. Kaye and Mrs. Pyncombe’s Trustees, the latter in 1824. R Hodgson Esq. is patron, and the Rev R. Milner B.A. is the incumbent.

St. James' Church and School is a neat structure in the lancet Gothic style, erected by subscription in 1837 nearly in the centre of the village, at the cost of about £800 to serve as a National School and as a Chapel to the Parish church which is more than an mile from Barnoldswick and Salterforth where the chief part of the population is situated. The Methodists and Baptists have chapels here.

BROGDEN one mile west of Barnoldswick, is a hamlet having in its township 229 inhabitants and 1670 acres, including the hamlet of Admergill, which adjoins Lancashire, three miles south of Barlick and is annexed to the Chapelry of Colne.
Directory; John Midgley, vict, Greystones. William Watkinson, vict, Moor Cock. Admergill: James Duckworth and John Waite, Yeomen. Henry Buller, John Carr, Richard Catterall, James Cook, Thomas Edmondson and James and John Hartley Farmers.

COATES. near the Parish Church, and the extensive limestone quarry called Gill Rock, one Mile North-East of Barnoldswick is a hamlet and township, with 88 souls and 700 acres, mostly the property of J.W. Bagshaw Esq. and Mrs. Busfield. Directory: John Green, Lime and Coal Merchant; William Holdsworth, Cotton manufacturer, John Atkinson, Thos Eastwood , Thomas and William Edmondson,
and John Rawsthorne. Farmers.

SALTERFORTH. A Village and township on the Leeds & Liverpool Canal four miles North of Colne and a mile east of Barnoldswick, has 725 inhabitants and 850 acres, including part of Whitemoor enclosed in 1815, an extensive limestone quarry, part of which is in this township and a part in Barnoldswick township is worked by the Canal Company and is called Rainhall Rock. There is also an excellent free-stone quarry in Salterforth Lane belonging to R. H. Roundell Esq. Directory: Joseph Brunskill vict. Canal House, John Simpson vict, Lamb Lane Head; Francis Peel, Coal and Lime Merchant; Peter Hitchin, Blacksmith; John Wilkinson, Gent.; William Barrett, Henry Hartley and Henry Whittaker, shopkeepers. Stephen Broughton, Stephen Cragg, John Hartley, John Heap and Brothers, John and Joseph King, Sarah Pollard, and Stephen Preston, Graziers.

BARNOLDSWICK. Directory I838. Post office at George Hargreaves, letters are despatched to Colne 8 o’clock morning and to Skipton 1 o'clock afternoon: Armistead Wm. Land Valuer, Clark John and William Auctioneers,
Dean Henry and Duckworth Thos, Farmers; Ellison James, Corn Miller; Milner Rev Rd., B,A. incumbent, Petty Richard Surgeon, Shuttleworth Robert Farmer; Spooner Rev. John, Baptist Minister, Waite Henry, Registrar; Waite William, Parish Clerk. Inns: Commercial George Hargreaves; Cross Keys, Ann Edmondson; Engine, Thomas Robinson; Greyhound , Henry Wigglesworth; Syke House, Seven Stars, Thomas Smith. Blacksmiths, Bell Samuel, Hewitson Thomas, Uttley James. Butchers, Armistead William, Clark William, Smith Thomas. Cotton Manufacturers, Bracewell John, Grimshaw and Bracewell, Smith P, Gillions. Wigglesworth John. Mitchell’s Mill. Joiners, Crook Henry, Crook James, Hartley Christopher, Hudson James, Robinson Robert. Shoemakers, Demaine William. Pickup George. Strickleton John. Waters James, Wilkinson E. Shopkeepers; Appleby Ralph, Armistead William, Broughton Richard, Lamb John, Livsey James, Mitchell. Edward, Waite Henry, Edmondson Robert. Stone Masons; Broughton Richard., Broughton William, Curwin Thomas, Smith Thomas. Tailors; Merriweather J, Knowles Robson, Turner Christopher, Atkinson Thomas. Carriers; Slater Henry and Thomas, to Manchester, Mondays, and to Skipton Tues. Thurs. and Sat. Turner William to Colne, Wed. and Sat and to Settle Tues and Fri.

1838 BRACEWELL. a village and parish in the liberty of Clifford’s Fee. Two miles east of Gisburn, has 160 inhabitants 1920 acres. The ruins of two ancient Halls, and the hamlet of Stock. Earl de Grey owns a great part of the soil and is Lord of the Manor and patron of the Church of St. Michael, which has a Vicarage valued at £125. Directory. Thomas and James Cockshott, Yeomen. And John Carr, John and Luke Hartley, Thos Lancaster, and William Roberts, farmers.

1838 MARTON EAST AND WEST. Two neighbouring Villages, with the hamlet of Marton Scars % ½ to 6 ½ miles west of Skipton, constitute the parish of Marton, and contains 443 inhabitants, and 2310 acres of land. Mrs Mary Cholmondeley, as heiress of the Heber family, is Lady of the Manor and owner of Marton Hall, in which was born, Reginald Heber a learned Divine, who died in 1804, and of whose family was Bishop Heber. R. H. Roundell Esq., has a large estate here, and a pleasant seat called "Gledstone Hall" . The Church (St. Peter.) stands at East or Church Marton. The Rectory, valued in K.B. at £14..4..4 and in 1831 at £150 is the gift of Mrs. Cholmondeley, and incumbency of the Rev. H. C. Wilson M.A. The School was founded by the parishioners in 1775 and endowed with nine acres and nineteen perches of land. The master has also the interest of £56 given by Rebecca Heber and others. Directory: John Aldersley, vict, Cross Keys. Eliza Bolton and Henry Bradley shopkeepers. Rev. William Cooper: Thomas Hodgson, [black]Smith, Thos. Holmes, Schoolmaster. Tps[sic] Hastings Ingham Esq., Marton House: Henry Langstroth. Vict., Heber Arms. John Atkinson, tailor; Rev Henry Currer Wilson MA, rector. and Thos, and William Bradley, Thos Croft, Rd Garforth, Geo Hayhurst. Thos Pawson, John and Thos. Peel, Rd, Slater, Benjamin Snowden, Graziers.

1838. THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN. a, pleasant village six miles SWS of Skipton has in its parish 2,246 souls, and 6710 acres of land consisting of the four united townships and Manors of Thornton, Earby, Kelbrook and Harden, extending southward to the hamlets of Hague and Hawshaw, in Kelbrook, 3 miles North of Colne and 4 miles South of Thornton. Sir John L.L. Kaye is Lord of the Manors and owner of most of the soil and patron of the Church, St, Mary, which is a rectory valued in K. B. at £19-15-2 ½ and in 1831 at £248. The Rev L.S. Morris is the Rector. The Parish free school at Earby was founded in the 17th Century by
Robert Windle who endowed it with £40 a year. The Almshouses at Thornton for five poor woman of this parish, were founded in 1815 by Rachel Smith, who endowed them with the dividends of £8,000, three per cent consols, controlled by the Society of Friends. A Directory follows: Rev W. A. Wasney, Fence-End. Earby William Bracewell Manufacturer &.c ( I correct this last name which ought to have been Christopher, the father of William of Barlick fame E.D.)

The writer wishes to make a few comments and remarks regarding the 1838 history herein before quoted, as there are statements which are not very good to understand, and also some omissions being of interest to the reader. The five Cotton Mills, of which I never heard of more than four, and unless Ouzledale Mill was numbered as one of the five and. of which I never heard spoken of as such, then there would only be four namely, Two small mills at Gillions, one at Coates and one at Clough.

The Daubers Dole is left out altogether in the same records, such small mercies as those are surely worth recording, and consisted of the annual payment of £3 to the teacher of the National School at Barnoldswick and the amount payable yearly to the vicar for extra clerical duties performed twice in each year at the Church, This was the act of a generous man, who owned the farm called Daubers near Foulridge. I believe a like sum was left to the Parish of Colne on similar conditions.

Mr. John Slater's name is also omitted in the Directory, he being a Carrier, and also an employer of labour for the hand loom weavers. This place of business was in Barlick Lane.

St. James' Church; it is very interesting to learn how inexpensive building operations were at this time, 1837. St. James’ Church erected at a cost of Eight Hundred Pounds. This seems almost incredible, but we must accept the same as a matter of fact from records of 1838.

A similar instance at Rathmel will assist us to realize this problem. A small, neat chapel of ease was erected at Rathmel four miles South of Settle at a cost of Four Hundred Pounds. Evidently, contractors secured very cheap labour in those days when the ‘Knights of the spoon’ enjoyed robust health, and invigorating fresh air. Another name omitted in the Directory was John O'Bailey a Mason and a shopkeeper.

I cannot overlook the honourable distinction with which a very few old Barlick worthies, and also in the near neighbourhood, are connected, and who can look back on their father’s name at or near this time and who are still in the land of the living
in 1915. Mr. James Hartley, son of Luke Hartley of Bracewell, the honourable Landlord of the ‘Railway Hotel’ for nearly the last forty years. Next, the octogenarian, Broughton Atkinson, son of Thomas Atkinson who for half a century, was a Tailor in old Barlick. Next William P. Atkinson a brother of the former, and son of the latter. Next Wright William Bailey son of John O’Bailey mason and shopkeeper. Next John Whittaker, son of Jenny Whitaker. Harry Holdsworth son of Richard Holdsworth of Esp Lane Bottom, next Lambert Robinson, son of William Robinson joiner, son of Jack O'Dollies. Next, James Slater of Barnoldswick, Coates, a few years younger than the names of those previously mentioned, this gentleman, an old Barlicker is the only survivor of a large family of Mr, John Slater of Barlick Lane. Those few who are still here and able to confirm this story, are the only remaining links in the memory, who are connected with the generation of 1835 to 1855
and thereabouts. Surely then, to be serious, we may ask the question with secharia[sic] of old, Chapter 1. verse 5. ‘Your fathers, where are they? and the prophets do they live forever?’

1836 ORGAN IN GILL CHURCH purchased from Burnley Parish second-hand. An unsightly gallery in which the Organ was placed and thus obscuring a grand arch at the West end, after being erected across the nave, and thereby rendering the beautiful window in the Tower comparatively useless, after which a roof light was made as a sort of compensation to throw some light on the gallery and Choir. Also a small window underneath for light under same.

1836 NEW PEW FOR CHURCHWARDENS. and Constable at Gill Church. Brass plate on door inscription as follows: - R. Milner, Curate, T. Rathmel, T. Heap, J. Rawsthorne, and Jas Duckworth, Church wardens. John Waite Constable.

1837 (and some years previous) The much appreciated Sunday School held at Gill Church on Sunday mornings, were now transferred to the New St, James' School Church after the erection of the same at Barnoldswick. Gill Sunday School was well attended, young people did not need a prize as an inducement to attend a Sunday School in those days, both from Barnoldswick and Salterforth they came in numbers. Henry Kendall the dwarfe from Bancrofts, was Organ Blower at Gill. The information regarding events relating to Gill Sunday School are from first hand sources, my late father T, Atkinson was a teacher there, and he told me how the school was managed and that the total expenses never exceeded Five Pounds a year
for Bibles and testaments and spelling and reading-made-easy books and all other incidental expenses included.

The late Mr. Greenwood Hartley, and his brother Roundell and also Mrs. Dean, were scholars there, and it was amusing to hear those elderly people tell how they enjoyed their dinner, either inside or outside the Church after School hours according to the seasons of the year, and the state of the weather, This luncheon consisted chiefly of a small bottle of milk and a currant bun or pastie. Each scholar bringing the same from their own home. How harmless and primitive this must have been when neither knife nor fork nor spoon were found necessary in order to complete this old time banquet. After dinner a short interval, the bells rung out their call to prayer. And Divine Service was held at the shrine of their ancestors, in which both scholars and teachers, and congregation reverently joined.

There was at this time also a Sunday School conducted in the Baptist Chapel near Town Bridge, Barnoldswick, and also most likely another such school at the Wesleyan Chapel on Jepp Hill,

1830. FIRST RAILWAY. The first railway enterprise employing steam as a propelling power, was the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened September 15th 1830. since which time, railroad communication has been extended with wonderful facility to nearly every part of the kingdom. (Barnoldswick included)

1840. THE PENNY POSTAGE. Rowland Hill published his pamphlet on Postal Reform in 1837 thus one may affirm that it was Queen Victoria who brought the Penny Post with her. In 1839 the charge for letters inside London was lowered to a penny. In 1840 this boon was extended to the United Kingdom and today the annual number of penny stamps is said to be not less than 2,000 Millions. Imagine what all this signifies, in closer and more constant intercourse, of home with home, heart

with heart, mind with mind, locality with locality, friend with friend, parent with child, lover with lover, customer with dealer. In 1836 a letter took ten hours in transit from one to the other extreme of London and cost over a shilling while today a letter may be sent thousands of miles for a penny.

1838 The Electric Telegraph invented, and comes into use.

1839. Photographs first produced by Daguerre, a Frenchman.

1841. NATIONAL SCHOOL. Erected at the bottom of Butts and the small old school which stood a little higher up the Butts was demolished. After this, the school held at St, James Church was transferred to the new School and the Church was consecrated and one of the doorways was walled up opposite the lower gateway and a porch was erected at the other door.

The, Rev. S.H, Ireson, Vicar from 1870 up to 1879 discovered that this Church had never been licensed for Marriages, however this may be, I can well remember several marriages being solemnized there, during reparation at Gill Church. One such wedding at St, James' Church consisted of Eighteen couples and after the service vas ended they formed a procession which reached half way to Dam Head down Mill Lane now called Skipton Road, on their way to Syke House, at which Inn the remainder of the day was spent with fiddler and guests, all the necessary requirements being there provided by the Host and Hostess for their comfort and jollification. Old time weddings, when returning from Gill Church were frequently met by a fiddler who headed the procession to a Public House where the large Club room was prepared for the occasion, and twelve couples were considered a very moderate affair. No one thought to suggest the advisability of reason and temperance on such occasions, in as much as there was no other available or suitable accommodation in -the town.

Origin of the phrase ‘Old Ship and New Ship’.

1839. THE BENEVOLENTS withdrawal from the Wesleyan Methodists. In 1839 the people at Barnoldswick were like all other industrial communities of that day, very poor, but not withstanding this, the officials of the Colne Wesleyan circuit considered that the money sent to them from Barnoldswick was inadequate. A man named Robert Slater, was appointed to take the money to the quarterly meeting at Colne. When it was put on the table, one of the officials seemed surprised at the smallness of the amount and said ‘Is this all you have brought?’ This seemed to be the beginning of the rupture which ended in five class leaders sending in their resignations. One of the Ministers from Colne, hearing of this and seeing his own place almost empty, preached a sermon which has made history. The text was taken from Acts Chapter 27, verse 31; ‘Except these abide in the ship ye cannot be saved’ This was the beginning of the familiar expression of ‘Old ship and New Ship’. The Benevolents. as they called themselves, worshipped in an house for a short time, kindly lent by old George Pickup, after their emancipation and freedom. On one occasion when the Colne parson preached he bluntly told his flock that unless you give better tonight than you did this afternoon myself and family at Colne will have to live on potatoes and Salt all next week. And no doubt such language insulted some of the poor folk who couldn't afford an ounce of tea but used parched thorn-leaves as a substitute for same.

1843. THE CHARTISTS or Huntites, as they were commonly called. A large crowd of these men came to Barnoldswick from Colne and on their way to Skipton they made a halt here in order to enlist more sympathizers in their cause and thus to swell ranks. Before this time these men had created much disturbance in some parts of Lancashire and at Colne there were frequent riotings, followed by imprisonment. They were not very successful here, and very few men were found willing to march to Skipton. My late father was accosted by one of the ringleaders for his cowardice in staying at home and following his regular employment ‘Come along man, and help us to defend our rights, we are starving, and muddent we as weel be killed as clam’d to deeath?’ Their visit to Skipton however ended in their utter failure to accomplish any redress and after the soldiers made their appearance the Chartists took to their heels helter skelter, homeward bound. Whatever else may be said of this misguided movement, one thing cannot be gainsaid namely, that poverty and distress are hard to bear and that whenever such calamities do happen and where peaceable citizens are willing to work for their daily bread, surely then charity ought to step in and thus enable those who have enough and to spare that opportunity of coming to the rescue of their less fortunate brethren in their dire distress and that through no fault of their own. However, the Chartists went to extremes in the wrong direction and provoked and abused the very people who had the power to help them. The writer concludes this subject with a little story in connection with these unhappy times. This took place on Elslack Moor now becoming famous in Barlick on account of our contemplated water supply. There lived at Low Ground Farm near Elslack two stalwart young brothers, named Phillip and Ben Harrison who, out of curiosity, took a stroll up the Moor one Sunday morning in order to visit the Chartist’s rendezvous where they were accustomed. to hold their meetings and could give vent to their grievances without let or hindrance. Here they found all in full swing. A crowd of people, accompanied. by several hucksters donkey-carts from Colne, these contained the necessary eatables and drinkables for the occasion. It so happened that when one of the speakers was thus earnestly engaged, a sudden applause burst from the sonorous lungs of one of the long-eared tribe, and best he could do was Hick e.o. Hick e.o. This so enraged the speaker, that he stretched out his arm and pointing to the offender, exclaimed, '’You hold your noise you B…. (nearly a swear word). ‘Let one speak at a time!’ Another tanjib weaver dead. Philip nudged Ben with a ‘Come on let's go down home. That's well said, let one speak at a time' another Tanjib Weaver dead. [sic]

1845 And long years before this date, the decline of hand-loom weaving, both here and all round the country area, put an end to a long and dishonourable practice called "Ronge". This system was carried on by a few unscrupulous and selfish hand-loom weavers, the traffic in which was to be deplored as the reverse of virtue. ‘Ronge' was the weft left over after the weaver had completed his pieces, and the weft so obtained was secretly hidden and stored away awaiting for the call of a ‘ronge dealer’ instead of the same being returned to its proper and rightful owner, namely the Putter-out and employer, who supplied the same. This weft was sold in a clandestine manner to middle-men as could stoop to, and thus encourage others to indulge in this dishonourable business. After which this commodity found its way into the market, as it was neither too hot nor yet too heavy for those who believed in making money right or wrong. All this was done under the pretence that such weavers, after returning the cloth to the employer had fulfilled the requirements of the same and were entitled to what remained. Thus they ignored the generosity of their masters in allowing sufficient margin for the completion of the cloth, and also for accidents or misfortunes made during the process of winding the hanks on the bobbin-engine. It must therefore be agreed that Ronge was a dirty business from first to last, and that there was nothing approaching fair and honest dealings in connection with the same and also that a large profit was realized by those middle-men who no doubt procured such material at their own prices, and we may guess that such prices would be very small, and also that the same would be re-sold by them to such employers in this business as cared to dabble in such underhand transactions, and would fall far short of the proper market prices under honourable circumstances, as we presume that an
employer would not like to buy his goods twice over.

Happily the before mentioned paragraph does not apply to the great majority of folk who were thus employed in hand-loom weaving and who nobly resisted such temptations and remained as ‘honest as the day’s leet’ and some of these good folk
looked upon the introduction of the power-loom as just punishment upon past wrongdoers which would deprive them of full liberty which they had so enjoyed in perfect freedom, and thus compel them to leave their homes, and to rise before six
o’clock in the winter time. This was considered a great hardship, as they never advocated the lighting-up in the morning practice which constituted ‘two neets in one day’, on the contrary, they would willingly work on when required to do so, until both fingers pointed straight up. [midnight]

A farewell denunciatory ode to Old Ronge.

An old knave, an old cheat, an old swindle was he,
This barefaced old rascal, whoever he be,
Nobody could tell where ere he did dwell,
But some old folk thought, by the actions he wrought
That his trade and his kinship smelled strongly of H***.

Please do not judge too harshly as the letter ‘H’ may possibly mean a Happy Home, happen.

Those were the days when poor folk had to be content with ‘Chaff-Beds’ and plain wooden bedsteads with cords across both ways and minus mattresses. However, when money became more plentiful the chaff beds were emptied out, and cotton or woollen flocks with Iron Bedsteads and comfortable mattresses took their place as the years rolled on.


1845. THE VICARAGE erected for Barnoldswick Parish.
This must be considered a wonderful achievement for the Rev. R, Milner, who came to Barnoldswick Parish in 1836, and in less than ten years accomplished all this colossal work in connection with the Parish, namely, in 1837 St. James' Church erected. In 1841 National School Butts erected. In 1844, National School Salterforth erected. In 1845 the vicarage erected, and what is most surprising is that all this took place at a time when Barlick was considered to be in such poor circumstances. We may therefore judge for ourselves that the greater part of the funds required for the accomplishment of all this work were subscribed amongst the Vicars own friends at and around Kirkham, his native home. The writer had this information from Mr. Milner’s own lips.

1842. HAND LOOMS. Up to this time hand-loom weaving was one of the principal industries in Barlick, the grown-ups being weavers while the juniors were bobbin-winders, and one half of the folk were thus employed either at their own homes or at some convenient place, including the Dandy-shops, the largest of which was Mr J Slater’s in Barlick Lane where fourteen looms were run with one person to each loom (a single loom was called a pair) with the necessary bobbin-winders included. There was a smaller dandy shop at the left hand side along down Butts called ‘Little Hudson’s’ John Hudson’s…

There were also others who put out work here, Namely Christopher Bracewell of Earby who had as his manager here, his son who afterwards became so famous in old Barlick. His place of' business was in King Street, and the self-same house in which Mr. Joseph Blezzard so long resided, with iron-bars outside the window facing old Tom Slater’s orchard. There was also a putter-out of work from Colne, named Tom O'Bobs, his place of business was up the steps at the corner of Green Street. This place has also iron-bars outside the windows. There was also several weavers who fetched their work on their backs from Colne and returned their pieces, when finished, in the same manner.

The before mentioned Mr J. Slater of Barlick Lane was the largest employer of hand-loom weavers in this district, he having several horses constantly engaged. in transit of goods and conveying work to and from the outside places namely to Gisburn, Grindleton, Long-Preston, Settle, and Austwick which afterwards were forwarded by Mr. Slater into Lancashire en-route for Manchester. This old native employer also obtained a twenty five years lease of the Eight acres plot of Moorland belonging to Bracewell Church, from the Rev Thomas Haves. This plot was broken up and drained and properly cultivated. This found work for several men, and was well done, and has never gone back, but is still a useful addition to the Hey Glebe Farm and far more remunerative to its owner after the expiration of the Lease than it would have been had it remained in original and unbroken condition.

The so called ‘Double loom’. This was an invention which never became either popular or successful. It entailed a great amount of manual labour and also a reduction of the speed. In addition to the manipulation of two looms by one weaver, the difficulty was greater than the advantage gained However, one ingenious weaver of an inventive frame of mind, tried to construct an improvement in dealing with the shuttle driver or picking stick arrangement for the double loom and in doing so he earned for himself by his patent apparatus (which so resembled the operations of the ‘pretty milkmaid’) a fancy name which never left him but stuck to him to the end of his days; namely ‘Milker’.

The Sick Clubs in Barlick were another evidence of thrift and economy. The Free Gardeners Friendly Society, who built the row at Town Head. This Society embraced both male and female members, and had it’s headquarters at the Seven Stars Inn. The Odd-fellows Club, which built the block of buildings on the left side of Jepp Hill, this society had its headquarters at the Commercial Inn. The Forrester’s Club, ‘Court Henry-de-Lacy’ whose headquarters were at the Cross Keys Inn. All these institutions seemed to flourish, and no doubt they did a great amount of good, both in cases of sickness, and also at the death of any member or their wives, a certain amount of money being allocated in case the wife predeceased her husband.

All this points to the conclusion that Barlick, even in its hand-loom days, practised frugality and was not altogether dormant or slothful, but on the contrary, was a
plodding and industrious place, and if the earnings were not great, the spendings were proportionately small and extravagance in dress, or wastefulness in diet, or household finery, or unnecessary travelling expenses, were altogether unknown, and the first considerations were home comforts, in opposition to pride and vanity.

1845. Or about this time a new hearse was procured for this Parish before which, the majority of corpses were carried by hand in relays of bearers, or otherwise on the shoulders of strong young men, with changes of bearers at intervals, on the long journey to Gill Church, The writer remembers the discontinuation of these customs and has seen solemn mournful processions with one or more singers walking in front slowly through the town. Abe Crier, Jim Crier’s son was the last to be carried so. He died in King St at what was called ‘Congress Hall’ and had two elder brothers called respectively George and Tate Crier.

Before proceeding further I am anxious to interest my readers in an attempt to enumerate a few names of the dwellers in Barlick before the mixture off the L and Y took place. After which a full list of all will surnames be appended. The three largest
numbers of family names to the writer's knowledge, were the Edmondsons, Hartleys and Slaters. The two of the former had many peculiarities. As most of my senior readers can well remember, people were called (in those days) after their fathers' or
grandfathers or even their mother's Christian name, while the surnames of such were entirely omitted. The first illustration which comes to our notice is proof of this assertion, and which takes the lead in the list of honours is the Edmondsons. This must, in order to be properly understood and duly appreciated, be given in pure and original Barlick dialect. Old Joan O'David's (Edmondson), sons of same; Tom O’David's, Bob O’David's, Dave O'David's, Kit O'David's. Daughter, Alice O'David's, (The name Edmondson carries with it the Lord of the Manor rights of
Barnoldswick Parish and is at present held by a descendant of the Lidgett Flatt family, namely Haigh Edmondson Esq. of Nelson)

A great many of the grandsons also inherited the same distinction. Old Jim O’Patience, and his brother, Old Kit O’Patience (Edmondson). These last two were called after their Mother's Christian name and Kit had three sons which were called after their Grandmother's Christian name, one of the same was Nick (Nicholas) O’Patience. They left Barlick before Butts Mill started and went to about Skipton. Old Tommy Hudson built a new shop at Butts Top. Jim O’Patience lived in same, with weather cock on top and also kept the Post Office there. Old Bob O'David's lived at town-Head and had a large family. His two sons (who for a wonder) were called Thomas and Joe Edmondson.

Old Jack of Allan’s, Harry of Allan’s and Allan of Allan’s, Edmondsons. Those three brothers married three sisters, daughters of Old Allan Crier. Allan of Allan’s family all were called after their mother’s Christian name, thus Jim O’Molly’s (Mary), Jack O’Molly’s, Roxhannah and Tilla (Matilda) O’Molly’s. By the way of variety Harry of Allan’s two elder sons, Johnson and Norman received their proper surname Edmondson, whilst the younger brother got only Harry at Tibbey’s after mother’s Christian name, Tibby, supposed to mean Elizabeth. Willie O'Joe’s had a dwarfe called Roxhannah. Jack O'Dozie’s and Tilla O’Dozie’s and old Harry of Allan’s, all four had their dwelling places about half-way up Wapping and their proper surname Edmondson was scarcely ever uttered or even known amongst their neighbours.

The ‘Long Tom’ family, and old Nanny at Cross Keys are also of the same category. The Lidget Flatt's off-springs always used Lidgett in place of their proper surname. Old Tommy and Young Tommy at Lidgett, Old Will at Lidgett. sons, Jim, Harry and perhaps will at Lidgett. Although those Edmondsons partly lived at Salterforth, yet their acquaintance and connection with Lidgett was indisputable. It was often remarked about the female members of old Tommy at Lidgett’s family that ‘clogs dared not to go, and that shoes cared not to go’. A humorous remark which might apply in a good many similar instances. Old Kit (Christopher) Edmondson had sons, John and Tom O'Kit’s, and most of their children inherit the title of their grandfather's
Christian name.

After the Butts Mill started in about 1847 a large number of the Edmondsons arrived here from Salterforth and same as Barlickers they also inherited the same peculiarities. Thus Old Johnny at Spen, after which the ‘Spen’ was dropped and the father’s name, Johnny, was considered quite sufficient. Thus Joe, Will, Harry, Jim and Jack O’Johnny’s, also Betty and Maria O’Johnny’s.

Having overstepped my supposed boundary I will proceed as promised, namely the Hartleys. Old Tom O’Leonard’s had sons James and Valentine O’Leonard’s. Old Val had the misfortune to be minus one of his legs. Old Alexander Hartley had sons Kit at Allex, (Tasker) Old Temp [sic], Tom, Peter, Jack, and Charlie at Allex. Old Lennie Hartley had sons Stiv, Jack, Len and Dick O’Lennie’s also two daughters called Jane and Elizabeth O’Lennie’s. Old George O’Dick’s had a son George O’Dick’s (Married to Mary Ann Sellers) also four four daughters who in due time had their surname changed after which they were called respectively, Mrs. D. Jenkinson, Mrs. J Uttley and Mrs T Strickland. Those four good sisters of ‘Quiet George’ as he was often called, did not fail to add their reasonable share to the prosperity of the town as the years rolled on. Old Dick O’Len’s (Hartley) was Mr. Fawcett’s trustworthy steward.

Having now endeavoured to outline the category of the Edmondsons and the Hartleys, it may be interesting to relate a few kindred references to other names, although somewhat diversified, yet bearing on the same subject. Old Bill Waterworth had five sons and four daughters. The sons were always called after their Mother’s Christian name ‘Milly’ (Amelia), thus Dick at Milly’s, Jack, Lob, Will and Tom at Milly’s while the four daughters received their proper surnames thus, Bella Water, Betty, Margaret and Alice Water. Old Jacky at Barnsey had a large family of sons and daughters, thus, Bill. at Barnsey, Harry, Tom, Kitty and Jacky at Lower Barnsey. One more case which clung to an old native who only died about. twenty years ago, and whose proper name was John Tillotson Smith, and this was a double diversion namely, Jack O’Robins, also John O'Mary's.

The before mentioned article is sufficient to enable the reader to perpetuate the remembrance of old names and how they were diversified and used in their various and quaint forms set forth therein as examples of that olden time. More might have been said, but not without repetition and useless similarity.

SURNAMES. The following article will be devoted to the surnames representing the inhabitants of Barlick about 1845. The most numerous of such names were the Edmondsons, Hartleys, Slaters, Waites, Broughtons, Waterworths, Robinsons, Hudsons, Houldsworths, Hargreaves, Pickles, Brooks, Smiths and Windles. The surnames representing the smallest numbers, or even in some cases, a single individual were Ashworths, Atkinsons, Bennetts, Beezleys, Brothertons, Bilsboroughs, Carrs, Drivers, Dawsons, Dodgsons, Emmotts, Fells, Gates, Hewitsons, Heys, Holgates, Jenkinson, Kellys, Milners, Masons, Nutters, Nunicks, Pickups, Pinks, Rathmells, Lambs, Speakes, Sutcliffes, Sharpe’s, Wigglesworths and Waltons This last list of over thirty names may be classed as the small fry so far as numbers are represented. All the other surnames constituting the medium number of families will be included in the following and complete list of surnames in use by old Barlickers in 1845.

Appleby Corwen Hargreaves Nelson Shepherd
Armistead Crier Hornby Nuttall Shuttleworth
Ashworth Clark Hacking Nunick Shuttsuthers
Atkinson Duckworth Hey Nutter Speak
Broughton Dugdale Houldsworth Pickles Sutcliffe
Bracewell Dean Holgate Preston Sharpe
Bradley Dodgson Heap Petty Sugden
Bootham Demain Holden Parkinson Simpson
Banks Dawson Jenkinson Pollard Townson
Brotherton Dickinson King Pickup Thornber
Beezley Driver Kendall Parker Tillotson
Bennett Edmondson Knowles Proctor Turner
Bailey Eastwood Kelly Pickover Uttley
Barker Emmott Lowcock Pink Waite
Brooks Eccleston Livsey Robinson Waterworth
Bilsborough Fell Lambert Riley Whittaker
Blezard Green Lamb Ridge Wilson
Barrett Gates Lancaster Standing Watson
Hardacre Hodgson Milner Suthers Wright
Bell Hartley Mitchell Strickland Whipp
Brown Hudson Myers Slater Wilkinson
Bulcock Heaton Metcalfe Sellers Walton
Crook Harrison Smith Windle
Carr Hewitson Midgley Starkie Widdup

1845. Four articles embracing a variety of subjects and including cottage, house, food and Diet, Mode and manner of dress, household expenses and a few bits of dialect and short stories at that time in use in Old Barlick.

FIRST ARTICLE- Very few cottage houses had a back door and one objection to this was that a back door caused a "draft" and made too much wind in the house. All ordinary cottages had flagged floors and stone stair steps to approach the bedroom, cellars were not general. The back part of the house was used instead of same. No carpets or even hearth-rugs were in use up to this time, and the floors were scattered over with sand, the same being swept off at regular intervals after which a fresh layer of sand was used in like manner, this process was repeated several times each week, and the week-end cleaning-up did not start until after dinner on a Saturday when regular work had finished. There were few tablecloths and lump sugar seen only at the School tea-party. There were no sun screens inside the windows but only a curtain to draw across the same at night, there was a low blind about a foot high either crocheted or plain. Most of the cottages had a garret and this was approached by a broad staved ladder, all such rooms were open to the slate. Also, where there was no garret the upper storey was open to the slate. There were no under-drawings or ceilings either upstairs or down and the woodwork joists and boards were absolutely bare. Poor Joe Parker lost one of his eyes when a child by peeping through a knot hole in the bedroom floor while another youngster took aim with his bow and arrow from the lower room. The bare joists and boards style of building was not abandoned until twenty years after this time, when lath and plaster in most new buildings were generally adopted. There were four back-to-back three storied cottages the first block on right-hand side going up Barlick Lane. These were known as the ‘blue slate’, (the only blue slated houses in Barlick Town at the time). Old Jammie Pickles lived in one of these houses and had a large family. The youngest boy Josiah, after his father's death, lived alone at Moorside where he composed the well known ‘Moorside Polka’ Josiah was a clever musician, the flute being his favourite instrument, and in after years he obtained appointments at some of the leading opera houses in London.

Cottage house windows, though not so large as modern windows, would average from two to three dozen panes of glass in each window, and were very rarely constructed with up and down sashes. A single pane of glass on hinges called a casement which
could be opened or shut at will. This contrivance gave a mouthful of fresh air to the folk inside the house if they desired it.

The Cottage fireplace was formed with a 1arge opening at the bottom of the chimney, to allow Jack Sweep plenty of room when climbing up inside the ‘luvver’. On those occasions an old rhyme was chanted by the children outside as a sort of greeting to this black visitor from Skipton, while he was plodding his way up the luvver with a poke over his head and face, the rhyme ran thus ‘Sweep O, penny O, sweep the luvver clean O’, and finished up with ‘Jack, put the brush out at top’ This cruel practice has long become illegal.

DOMESTIC DUTIES: The milk and water were to fetch. The skimmed milk generally from the outside farmhouses, the water from Damhead or Town well, or from the becks if required for household purposes such as washing or cleaning, there being no milk or water hawkers. There were a number of lads came in for this kind of work, the writer himself has gone hundreds of times to Jack House Farm, quite a away with backtin strapped on his back, and on the return journey, with perhaps six quarts of milk which allowed the bearer no chance of stooping, which caused the milk to bob down the back of his neck. The writer's late father witnessed a fine episode in connection with the backtin business. This occurred at Lower Park Farm, while his father was sowing out there, or what was called 'Cat Whipping’ for eighteen pence a day and food, the breakfast table was all spread and ready for the family's meal, but before the guests sat down a milk-fetcher from Barlick put in his appearance and turning himself round placed the backtin on the table into which the good Mrs. poured his regular quantity of milk. While all this was going on Tommy the tailor was quietly sat on another table near the window, when suddenly the good lady of the house screamed out ‘Stop, stop, stop!’ The poor lad seemed dazed, and marched towards the door, with the table-cloth stuck fast between the backtin and his own back and before you could say ‘Jack Robinson!’ all the pots along with breakfast came crash to the floor. Thus we may say that ‘Accidents will happen!’

SECOND ARTICLE. Food and Diet. We may thus understand that skimmed milk formed one of the most useful household commodities and was used along with meal or flour or rice or sago or for baking purposes, or even at supper time when a large piece of oatcake, after its being well toasted and broken into some milk, formed a nice and light supper and no after effects were feared or nightmares experienced. There were two kinds or degrees or ways of making either meal or flour porridge. One kind of favourite mess namely ‘Hasty Pudding’. Flour also contributed to the making of the Yorkshire and numerous other kinds of puddings and pancakes. Meal was sometimes used for making ‘Stirabout’ in the frying-pan after the bacon was taken out and a little warm water added to the bacon drip, this last named beverage called Stirabout has gone out of fashion. A large amount of meal was required for baking the indispensable food called oatcake. The so-called Back-stone was a thick. Iron plate arranged on brickwork with fire grate underneath. Most of the farmers, and also some of the larger families possessed a backstone. There were however several public bake-houses for oatcake, such as old Polly Slater's, Old. Betty Simpson’s and others, where folk could take their five or ten pounds of meal and fetch back the same a day or two afterwards, and all ready for hanging up on the bread-fleak to dry. All this privilege cost only a few coppers. Such bread as was in use then was three times the thickness of the present day oatcake sold by hawkers. Potatoes and other vegetables, chiefly home grown, were cheap. Butchers meat were also cheap and the poor folks' joint was usually boiled, and a basin of broth with plenty of oatcake or dumplings in the same, this formed the first course, afterwards came the beef and vegetables. The hung beef, or bacon, where such luxuries could be afforded, were much appreciated, as was occasionally a good fat old hen in its season. For these and all other mercies, old Barlickers were truly thankful yea!

THIRD ARTICLE: Mode and Manner of Dress. Boys up to ten or twelve years of age had no vests and required no gallases (braces) the jacket going inside the top part of the trousers, which were suspended from the former by four buttons. The material used for such suits was invariably drab fustian or corduroy with only two pockets in the trousers which were called toa (marble) pockets. The trousers were worn down to the top of the clogs, and no pockets in the jacket.

THE DAYS OF SCOTCH PLADDIE: In these days grown up men did not wear an overcoat, but the woollen plaid (or ‘plod’ as it was called) of various colours all the fashion. This warm substitute for the top coat was fastened close to the breast with an iron or brass double-ended hook which usually bore the initials of the owner. The Plod could be opened out when required, so as to protect the wearer from all kinds of weather. This innovation continued to be worn more of less quite up to 1860 particularly so by elderly men. The young men in adopting the overcoat, and since that time the Scotch Pladdie has never returned. Brown and Black velveteen and Fustian formed the greater part of clothing for ordinary working folk, while cloth was worn only by the people whose circumstances permitted them to do so. A good
writer had a neighbour who was proud to be wearing his wedding coat twenty years after that event. The coat was dark blue and cut ‘Swallow tail’ and adorned with gilt buttons, but it must be remembered that Sunday Clothes were never worn on the Saturday (as now) by either the men or the women folk, and in the majority of cases such a thing as being in, or out of ‘fashion’ never once troubled their heads.

Just a word about the women folk. The old Black Satin Coal Scuttle Bonnet was fast giving place to a much smaller shape, and this was generally made from straw or Leghorn and not from fabrics. Old Betty Bever (Veevers) the travelling Milliner from Colne, was the principal caterer for the women’s head-gear (there being very few Milliners' Shops then in Barlick) and did a roaring trade. She, and her assistants (in the season) came loaded here at least twice a week, and were quite a favourite with the working class young women. Old Betty Bever could supply her customers with a good serviceable bonnet, with ribbon strings to tie under the chin, and all other trimmings complete, and guaranteed for twelve months, for the reasonable sum of six seven or eight shillings at the most. (no ten inches long pins required) Women generally wore Shawls, both Sunday and weekday. A special Paisley Shawl made from thin material and beautiful design which could be worn in different ways was considered quite a luxury and never went out of fashion. Elderly women preferred the long dark graceful cloak or mantle. Women and men’s also children’s clothing were all home made in the town (excepting hats, caps and bonnets) The same may be said of the boots, shoes and clogs, and none of the before mentioned articles could be purchased at the shops. The clogs were not finished by the clogger, but had to be fetched from that tradesman and taken to the blacksmith for completion with irons or rings and wait their turn or kayle, yea. (Yes)

FOURTH ARTICLE: Household expenses. House rents were very reasonable, starting at sixpence for single-roomed houses (weekly) and going up for other and decent kinds of houses from a shilling by intermediate pence to two shillings per week. Shortly after this time, say 1851, the first four houses were built by the Forrester’s Club in Mill Lane, [Skipton Road] with separate back door accommodation the same being substantial through houses and a nice bit of garden in front, all this for half a crown a week. The writer lived in Forrester’s Row when a boy, and must have known.

Flour and Meal and several other commodities such as sugar were dear, Milk was cheap, eggs a half-penny each, bacon and good cuts of beef or veal or mutton, sixpence a pound. Vegetables and fruit were reasonable, fresh fish scarcely obtainable, while salted herring could be had at most of the grocers shops. Butter about average nine pence. Candles, the only article in use for lighting purposes either in houses or Places of Worship, there being no paraffin-oil or lamps up to this time of any kind. Candles were made in various thicknesses or counts from eight up to twenty in each pound, and a number fourteen's would serve a whole family when placed in the centre of the table, round which the knitting and sewing by the grown-ups were accomplished. While the youngsters enjoyed themselves either by reading books or playing harmless games such as spinning tom-totam for pins or marbles until the time to march up stairs. Candles, about five pence half-penny a pound, and when a half pound was bought for three-pence the jannock shopkeeper returned an additional farthing candle, or a row of pins, such candle was used for going to bed purposes.

Just about this time, 1850, some of the smart young men took a fad for wearing Wellington or top-boots, and although there were no flagged causeways you could hear the approaching footsteps of such individuals when they were fifty yards distance, bump, bump, bump! A performance which the wearer seemed to enjoy. This extraordinary fashion for the upper-ten young men, preceded by a few years the introduction of the elastic sided foot gear, which afterwards became so popular for both men and women’s wear. Elastic Sided Boots have also disappeared.

WELLINGTON BOOTS: A good little story from first hand re. Wellington Boots. It so happened in a family of five big boys that one of the eldest who wore the stylish Wellingtons on the Sunday had a rather inconvenient joke played on him on his return home very late at night. Of course, that was excusable, it being well known by the other brothers that he was overflowing with love and it took him a good many hours to reveal his infatuation, and for one who seemed to be all the world to him. However, on that occasion the younger urchins had hidden the necessary and indispensable Boot-jack consequently the ‘percher’, not wishing to disturb the family, took himself quietly to bed in full possession of his Boots until the morning when Santa Claus or someone else who had had their finger in the pie narrowly escaped having their lugs well pulled for the part they had played in the so called ‘Marlack’.

An old Barlicker who owned a few old cottages, while on his collecting round one week-end, met with a little surprise from one of his tenants, who paid a shilling a week rent, and who seemed a bit tardy at his having to part with that amount, and maybe, he had the morley-grubs just then, however, he said in an insulting manner; I wish I wor like thee, born wi’t silver spoon in thee mauth, an another thing, a think. I've paid enuff rent for this ‘ouse to ko it me oane’ After this the Landlord thus replied. ‘Oh does ta think soa? Thal happen let me say what I think, and that is. if nobody ed hed na more brass ner thee, tha'd a hed ta live awt at door i’t fresh air all thy life! Tha can crack that nut, en good neet!’

The good old home brewed and small drink were pure, and free from ‘fuddle’ and could be had at home and were sometimes used instead of milk for the porridge. This was real ‘Stay at home’ porridge, now totally ignored.

1846 REPEAL OF THE CORN LAWS: Great rejoicings and a grand procession of about thirty carts, representing all the trades and notables of the town and headed by the Barlick Band. This great event was a general holiday. Tommy Corwin was hewing a stone. John Wright was handloom weaving. Broughton Atkinson was tailoring, and all other trades in like manner were equally engaged, while riding in great pomp and ceremony in the numerous carts. Others also joined the monster procession on foot. A similar event took place at Salterforth on a smaller scale,

and a large currant-loaf, after its being exhibited along with the procession through the village, was distributed to the assembly ‘all round the May-Pole’. The writer witnessed both of these ‘girt stirs’ which were celebrated in the anticipation of the much needed and cheaper ‘staff of life’ which was to follow. Sir Robert Peel, John Bright, and Richard Cobden took the leading in this movement.

For the foregoing particulars, which have reference to new Railways, we are indebted. to a Gentleman friend, Mr. Bramley of Skipton, who kindly contributed the following reliable information namely.

1841 Railway opened from Keighley to Skipton. 1849 Railway opened from Skipton to Colne (called Colne branch). 1842 Railway opened from Skipton to Lancaster, and finally to Morecambe. 1870 Barnoldswick branch railway opened 15th February as per record. The writer remembers well, and. witnessed the first train run on the Colne branch, and Barlick seemed quite interested in this new and wonderful event, and scores of people left their work and journeyed to Hurst Hill, above Higher Park Farm, where an excellent landscape view was obtained, the same reaching from Broughton cutting, and along to E1slack, Thornton, Earby and all the way to Foulridge. After waiting for some time, all doubt or curiosity were set aside and steam from ‘Puffing Billy’ was seen coming from Elslack and the other intermediate stations to Foulridge. After this, the little crowd being satisfied, wended their way home with joy and gladness at what. had been seen, and caused the talk of' the town for many a long day.

1847 BURIAL at Colne of' John Harrison, a Foulridge navvy. This man was killed by a fall of earth while employed on the Railway near Kelbrook. The deceased was followed to the Grave in the presence of an immense number of people, by a number of navvies dressed in white smocks and trousers, each wearing a rosette in his hat. This accident happened. at Blue-Hill Cutting and near this Parish.

1847. Old Christopher Bracewell died at Green-End Earby, and was buried in a new large double vault near the tower at Gill Church. This old Gentleman was the Father of Mr. Wm. Bracewell, who had come to live at Newfield Edge Barnoldswick.


1846. PRELIMINARY REMARKS: This year may be call ed the beginning of the Modern History of Barnoldswick, and also the decline of hand-loom weaving, which had to make way for the great change in the weaving industry. This will be easily understood from the following facts namely, that the inauguration of the steam loom altogether changed the capabilities of manual labour by which change a single person could manage with more ease, three power-looms, than the same individual could have worked previously on a single hand-loom, and all this at a greatly increased speed which meant more than a doubled increase on the original output of the old hand-loom. And further, no bobbin-winders were now required. Thus we may safely say that this great change had ‘come to stay’ and that competition was altogether out of the question. An ordinary old experienced hand-loom weaver very soon became acquainted with the new machinery and also with the pulleys and straps that all went round, and in a short time such persons, male or female might stand at ease for a few minutes now and again and carefully watch the progress of the weft and warp in the formation of the cloth, and knowing well all the time that keeping the looms ‘agoing’ meant money " and also Vice a Versa. When the Clough and Butts began running (some two years after this time) the hours were from six to six, and four o’clock on a Saturday which were shortly afterwards changed to half past two o’clock and again, finally, to half-past eleven and on other days changed to half-past five instead of six pm with one and a half hours for meals. Factory hours again reduced: 7am to5:30pm; Saturdays 7am to 9:30am about 1920.

Thus came the end of the old wooden handlooms in cottages and their bedrooms and no reflections need be cast on the same or on the worthy folk who made the best use of them they possibly could until some other kind of Invention took their place, after which they were discarded and broken up or used for some other purpose, while a clean comfortable bedroom was the outcome of this great industrial change.

1846. ERECTION OF CLOUGH SHED by the Mitchells to hold about 300 looms, while a part of same was used for winding, warping and cut-looking, there being no warehouse accommodation for some years after this time. Clough Shed was tenanted by the three brothers; William, Thomas and Christopher Bracewell who had for several years carried on the manufacturing business at Coates and Clough Old Mills, they being owners of the former and tenants of the latter places. The Shed was erected in close proximity to the Old Mill and required a new and separate engine, which was however driven from the same pan (or boiler) as was the old engine inside the Mill. There was also a large water-wheel used in the Mill. A great many formerly hand-loom weavers thus learned the new ‘art’ at the Clough Shed, while and before the Butts Mill and Shed were being completed the latter premises being so much more extensive, and requiring longer time for completion. This would be twelve months or thereabouts. The Bracewell Brothers were able to supply the new Shed with weft and a part of the warps produced in their old Mills already in their possession, however, the machinery in these two old places was not considered up to date and soon as Mr. William Bracewell (cousin to the above brothers) had finished the large mill and shed in Butts and furnished the same with new and modern machinery All this began to tell in favour of Butts, and many of the hands took advantage of the same and ‘changed places’. The Clough Shed was built chiefly by Barlick masons excepting the chimney and this was built by David Carr (Little Dave) of Gargrave and was the first tall chimney erected in the town. The writer of this article was told by old Mr. Wright William Bailey [sic] (who was a tenter at Clough Shed in 1848) that a few of the first looms in that place were made with wooden frames and were fetched from Trawden by the Clough Carter, Aaron Bilsborough who died here recently aged over ninety years, while Bob Foulds, the Tackler from Trawden, came to ‘gate-up’ those sort of mongrel looms. The makers name was Pilling, who soon after removed, and had a foundry built at ‘Guy Syke’, Colne, where he conducted a large business in the making of the modern power loom.

Before going further, an explanation of the word 'pan’ then in use, may be a little interesting and this will bring in also references to Butts as the two places, Clough and Butts were in progress concurrently. The ‘pan’ had no flues through it's centre, but was placed on a circular bed of brick-work which allowed a space of about eighteen inches or more between the bottom of the pan and the fire grate with a single oblong

door in the centre, while the fire space would extend some three or four yards back from the door after which an aperture was allowed for the smoke before reaching the damper. The first two pans which cane to Butts were of this old style construction whilst those which came afterwards were of the modern type with two flues in each (now called) boiler. These were considered a great and economical improvement, Mr. William Bracewell had the two old pans taken out in the slack time and broken up about 186I. It was at this time, and while this work was being done that poor Jack Riding lost his life whilst superintending these operations.

The boilers that came to Butts were made at Sandbeds near Keighley from thick iron plates and were much heavier than present day steel boilers, and when these old style boilers were brought by road and. came to Gill Brow some thirty extra horses were required and caused quite a commotion round the town. At Clough Mill and New Shed a new pan arrived, and a good bit of merriment was caused by the breaking of a rope whilst a lot of men and boys were helping to tug the pan from Low Gate across Peggy Field to the back of the Mill. Nobody was hurt, and all seemed to enjoy the fun whi1st they were laid prostrate on the ground.

After having made these few remarks, one must return to the general subject now under consideration.


Unfortunately for the town, the three respected Bracewell Brothers did not seem to have that push and go about them so necessary to enable them to keep pace with the then present day requirements, and consequently the business seemed to dwindle down and slip away from them. The two Mills were first closed down, this however, may be easily accounted for and was the case all over this part of the country when small old Mills with proportionately small out-put and rather heavy working expenses, combined with unsuitable premises and antiquated machinery, could no longer compete with the new and larger and modern equipped factories.

1860 About this time the three respected Brothers Bracewell before mentioned, gave up business and left Barlick altogether with the happy remembrances of all those who had known or been employed by William, Thomas and Christopher Bracewell, namely, that they had never been ‘Slave-drivers’.

So far, so good. Thus the Clough premises changed into other tenants hands who continued to run the Shed, while the old Mills were rendered almost useless and the machinery broken up for scrap iron, yea, that was so.

1860 At this juncture, Mr. Bennett, the Baptist Minister began business as a Manufacturer in a part of Clough Shed. A quotation from Mr, Lewis, Bethesda Baptist Church History, to whom the writer is indebted for this and several other items of information occurs at page 82 in the same historic work, thus; ‘In the year 1860 Mr. Bennett was prevailed upon by several prominent members of the Church to enter the Cotton Manufacturing Business in order to find employment for those who through depression in trade were leaving the town. This step unfortunately proved

a painful one to him. Soon after the American war began, which produced such disastrous results in the Cotton Trade in Lancashire and North Cheshire that Mr. Bennett, in common with many other manufacturers, succumbed to the severe losses suffered.

1860- The tenants who occupied the other portion of Clough Shed were the old experienced and formerly hand-loom firm, John Slater & Sons. The sons thus having the full benefit of their father's long experience, knowledge and perseverance. This
large family of young men, namely Joseph, Henry, Thomas, Clayton and James took an active part in the business, both up to the time of their father's death in 1867 aged 69 years, and also after that sad event the business seemed to go on and prosper, building and extending, and also letting room and power to others.

After Mr. Bennett gave up business, the whole of the Clough premises eventually were occupied by John Slater Sons who turned their energies to the Lindsey-woolsey Trade, and also to the coloured goods and fine Aberdeen ladies dress material while procuring the necessary sorts of the so called woollen weft required for this new class of goods from the central spinning districts around Huddersfield. All these goods found a ready sale in the home markets, and this was one reason why this firm kept plodding on namely, that they had several ‘Strings to their bow’. There was a great demand for the fine Aberdeen's which could be seen ticketed at fabulous prices in shop windows of large towns. All this meant work and employment and a small
margin of profit for the firm:

‘Like clegs they stuck or dogs e doaf. Till they secured both t’Clough en't loaf’ John Slater & Sons also for some time had a manufacturing business at Galgate near Lancaster. All this contributes to the happy and grateful remembrances of those who are ‘gone before’ and who did in their day and generation, to the best of their abilities both ‘sow the seed and toil and spin’. And the same (no doubt) duly appreciated by all the respected descendants of John Slater & Sons Barnoldswick in 1915.

184: ERECTION OF BUTTS SHED. by Mr. William Bracewell who recently came from Burnley to reside at Newfield Edge, Barlick. Although he was a native of Earby, he was not unknown to many a hand-loom weavers here. Mr Bracewell had a brother-in-law at Burnley, Mr. Smallpage, with whom he had spent several years in the manufacturing business (there being no Mill at Earby to this time). Butts Mill & Shed were considered to be a stupendous undertaking and a great number of masons arrived here from Blackburn, along with the contractor (called gaffer) old Jim Howarth who had three sons Rowley, Jack, and George. Butts Mills were built at the junction of the two becks$ which were arched over, and were thus erected on three different owners property namely. the Parrock, next the hillside of Royd’s (Great Croft) and the hill side of Lambert's now Lowcock's Calf Hall field. Adjoining the becks were several cottage gardens occupied by Jim O’Patience, Bill Demain, Jim Uttley, Richard Waite, and Tommy Atkinson. These however, very quickly disappeared. The Tubber Hill quarries were working almost day and night getting stone while the navvies were occupied in removing hundreds of loads of earth from the hillside where the Shed is built, the same being carted away to fill up a large old quarry opposite Emmotts' at Calf Hall, near the foot-path in Cornfield. Old Jim Howarth was Always on the spot and seemed to be a proper slave driver, and a terror to young or old who were anxious to have a glance at the great wonders then being performed in old Barlick The large Mill was four stories high and the Engine House was nearly at one end of the building. The Shed which at first contained 400 looms was very soon enlarged at the west end, and this increased the number of looms to 634. It would be about two years before any machinery arrived, the same having to be conveyed chiefly from Nelson Station and could not be obtained fast enough. The writer remembers going with his father and a visiting relative on the ‘Rushbearing Saturday’ to see the first trial of the engine and this would be August 1848. The chimney was said to be forty-five yards high, was built by Rowley Howarth assisted by Abe Heaton, a full grown Barlicker. The foundation of this tall structure was solid rock and in about 1877 had an additional ten yards of brick placed on the top. This was said to be necessary after the Ingleton (so called) Coals were introduced by Mr. Bracewell who had acquired facilities for working Coal pits at Ingleton.

When the chimney was completed the usual ‘lads’ were there ‘noses first’ and were ordered to fetch shavings from the joiner-shops after which the same were thrust into the bottom of the ‘luvver’ by the way of testing the strength of draft. When the lucifers were applied, a roaring blaze, and also an equally roaring shout echoed through old Butts. While all this fun was going on, one of the men snatched Dicky Webb's cap from his head and threw it up the chimney, however so strong was the draught that the cap was out of the top of same and dropped in the Parrock in next to no time.

THE BUTTS NEW MILL AND SHED, when completed, were soon in full swing and extensions and enlargements ‘knew no end’ while finally, Butts premises were found too small for Mr. Bracewell's requirements, and in 1854 he commenced to build another New Mill and Shed on his own estate, and afterwards known as Wellhouse Mill (to be dealt with hereafter) while the necessary required hands were coming here from all parts of the Country to fill up the places which old Barlickers were unable to take, and also too small in numbers to do so. Thus was the mixture complete, and soon all, both new-comers and old residents, fraternized together and dwelt in amicable citizenship in the once dear old Barlick.

There were said to be nearly 80,000 spindles in Butts Mill. It very soon became evident that the cold-water supply was inadequate for condensing purposes in summer-time and thus the old adage ‘lay up for a rainy day’ had to be reversed, and the Springs Dam was made, to lay up for a fine day. A vain attempt was made in Springs field, by cutting several deep trenches, in order to entice the old Dark Hill Well to forsake its first love and original birth place but without any success. This might have been done with good intentions and for the benefit of the town, thus viewed, the writer thinks it best to blame nobody.

Present day weavers may be surprised to learn that there were no taping or tape-legg machines at Butts for several years after weaving commenced there, all the warps were called ‘half-bear’ style, and such were not even sized on the premises. All this business was done at the Colne Size houses and carts were going to and fro loaded with warps from Barlick to Colne for that purpose almost daily. However after the introduction of the self-sizing machines, these journeys to Colne were considerably reduced and only the surplus goods which were sold to other weaving firms were thus treated.
Mr Bracewell was ably assisted in starting the Mill by several of his intimate friends, both confidential and managers from Burnley namely, Mr. Blackburn, Mr. Holden, Mr. Bibby, Mr. Pilkington and several others. And in addition to the weaving department he employed a good number of warpers for the supply of his customers at other places with his best yarns, while the looms at home used the mule twist. This also applies to the new Well House Mill, the same system being carried on at both places up to the end of the Mills running and the death of Mr. Bracewell in 1885 aged 72 years.

1850. and thereabouts. A bit of humour out of several, and connected with the early history of Butts Shed representing an original episode, namely, that matters were not always straight forward and sometimes small obstacles with rebukes crept into the general workings of this immense business. Thus it was said that early one morning at 5:50 two smart young men (Inspectors) either climbed the wall, or by some other means obtained access to the inner circle of the Butts premises where they secreted themselves until the looms were all in full swing sometime before 6 o'clock one morning. Those cheeky and unwelcome visitors dressed In their Sunday best, pounced into the Shed and made straight up to the young women and big lasses and axed these what they called ‘em, if Mary Jane, or Sarah Ann, or what else until they knew as many names as they wanted and it was very funny that they never went near any of' the men folk or even spoke to ‘Calico Jack’ or his tribe. However they didn’t stay many minutes, but went into the Engine-house to see what old ‘wag bi't wall’ had to say and happen thanking their lucky stars that they had not come into contact with old Joe Cowgill the watchman, who might have given them a dose instead of Shooting the wheel-barrow. After things had quietly settled down a day or two, lo and behold what next? All the women folk that had told what they called em got a circular telling them to dress up in their latest Betty Bever Bonnets and go to Skipton next Saturday, to some sort of a service without fail. Readers can easily guess what followed this palaver without being told:- (So much and cost.)

At Newfield Edge during those times, a grand old man named Tommy Berry was cowman and quite a favourite there, and it so happened that one night whilst he was quietly milking the cows, Mr. Bracewell leisurely looked into the Shippon and began to describe his troubles. Old Tommy courageously gave his master a bit of good advice saying ‘You should do reight, then reight will come to you’. It is thus to be hoped that young thirty-five ever after acted upon the golden rule to do reight thus administered by old seventy-five.

1850. And in close proximity to that time. The old Bone House at Gill Church was taken down and its contents buried. This ghastly building was open at the top, and in the corner adjoining both the buttress and the Church and nearly behind where the pulpit is situated. It was about a yard square and over two yards high with steps half way up the same.

Stone Coffin at Gill Church discovered while the sexton, old Bill Clark was digging a grave and soon a number of men and boys (the writer included) were on the scene and the coffin was hauled up with ropes and placed near the "little door" and very near
its original resting place. For some months after this occurrence, the Church was crowded with visitors from all parts who were anxious to see the stone coffin and attend the Sunday afternoon service held at Gill Church.
CORN MILL. large dam constructed which was formerly only a goit extending from Gisburn Road to within some thirty yards of the old round dam and becoming wider on nearing the same.

New Stone Trough at Damhead well which was formerly only a shallow oblong dub of spring water about the size of a modern bath not more than nine inches deep requiring care by all water-fetchers. This useful supply of pure spring water was never the same after the new sewer was constructed close to on the highway.

1850. EDUCATIONAL MATTERS including all the day Schools in Barlick which were supplying this important necessity were the following namely: Butts National School, Headmaster, Henry Dugdale. Baptist School Walmsgate, held in the Chapel. Head Master, Greenwood Wilkinson, Old Dame’s Schools, Martha Moors, Church Street; Martha Holgate's, Walmsgate. The two last named constituted what are now termed ‘Infant Schools’. Shortly after this time Dugdale removed to Slaidburn Grammar School, his place being taken by William Lambert, who in 1855 removed to Thornton-in-Craven and later still in January I856, Mr Gaskell. became Head Master of Butts School which post he occupied until the Old School was condemned in July
1875. The Brick School being built in this same year, Mr. Wilkinson left the Baptist School and was followed by Mr. H. Windle who did not remain long there after which time Mrs. Beezley took charge of this school for a short time, when the same was given up altogether while Mr, Wilkinson and Mr. Windle found employment under Mr. Bracewell and held honourable positions there the greater part of their lives. The old Dame's schools came to an end in 1852 by the death of old Martha Moor to the
regret of many parents including Mr. Bracewell and also Mr. Milner the former having three girls, and the latter two girls who had attended this school for several years. Mr Dugdale of Butts Schools was also a clock and watch dresser (like Old Bill Shutt) but unfortunately he spent a part of his school hours in this business and the writer of this article well remembers at various times seeing tumbler glasses upside down on the master’s desk. These contained more or less the works of the verges (watches) which were undergoing their ‘spring cleaning’ operations during which the scholars had to do the teaching. It may well be imagined that there were either no inspectors or else that their visits in those days were few and far between. All these remarks point to the conclusion that Schoolmasters at this time were Poorly paid for their services, and were almost entirely dependent on the school-pence which started at three-pence per week.

1850. The ‘Barring-out Day’ was a great event at the two Senior Schools. When a holiday was about to take place all the scholars contributed a small sum of money to these feasts of ‘fat things’ such as fruit, sweets, nuts and confectioneries, which constituted one of the principal features of these jollifications held in the school, and during which, should the master chance to go outside the room, the door was quickly ‘barred’ and he was not allowed to re-enter his school until the parleying was finished, and the one, two, or three weeks holiday granted amidst the bedlam there going on inside the room. At the Butts school one half of the ‘Nominy Money’ was thus appropriated while the other half was retained as a perquisite by the Scholar or Scholars who had performed the duty of reciting the nominy inside Gill Church on all reading occasions. This old custom which might be on a par with ‘Old Hen Money’ in a more polite form, has long since been discontinued. A few lines of the Old Nominy were as follows; ‘As many happy days I wish you still, As there are honey combs on Hybal’s Hill. I wish you never may deceased be, Till Sheep and wolves accord in unity, All earthly joys and heavenly bliss betide, This youthful Bridegroom and this comely bride.’

1851. Barlick was now rapidly becoming a more modernised place and economical people were beginning to realize the fruits of their new industry, whilst a few of the other class were always hard-up before the fortnight's end. The frugal folk had enough and perhaps a little to spare, and this soon began to manifest itself in various ways, first in home comforts and next in a desire to see and learn more of the outside world, and in this direction a grand opportunity presented itself at this juncture and was much appreciated namely;
1851: THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION at Crystal Palace London. This made quite a flutter in modern Barlick and a good number of people in a position to do so~ availed themselves of the opportunity to go to London and visit the Exhibition held in Hyde Park after which the building was removed to Sydenham in Kent where it has remained ever since, and retained its original name Crystal Palace. And thus the Barlick folk were enabled to see the wonderful sights at the world famed Exhibition, whilst towards the end of the season Dick Tom, and Harry were not content to be left behind, they also ‘raised the wind’ and gave instructions at their homes for everything to be in readiness for their departure over Tubber Hill en-route for London namely silk hat to be polished, Dickey to be starched, Boots to be blacked with old Johanna’s best, sold on condition that the blacklead brushes were all to be put under lock and key during the operation. It is gratifying to add that all returned home safe and sound. delighted with what they had seen and heard, and were besieged with the stay-at-home folk ever anxious to get to know all they could ‘for nowt’. It may be truly said that at this time and for years afterwards almost every piece of pottery, toys, fancy crockery, leatherwork, picture-books, in fact nearly everything were emblazoned with paintings and pictures and photographs representing the wonders and scenes both inside and outside the magnificent Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851.

The Old Johanna to whom reference has been made in the last article was an eccentric old man who resided at Foulridge and earned his livelihood by making and hawking blacking to the surrounding places. He possessed a very long white beard (nearly)
reaching to the bottom of his vest and was said to belong to a very peculiar sect called ‘Latter day Saints’

I851: BAPTIST CHURCH 2. (The former part of this history has been previously dealt with) The erection of the Bethesda Baptist Church which opened in 1852. This is the fourth and last place of worship connected with that body namely a Barn, a cottage, and the Old Chapel erected in 1797. The three last named places form one block of buildings, and close to the old burying ground of the Baptists.

1851. BETHESDA 2. The writer well remembers being present at the laying of the foundation stone ceremony at the bottom of the old back lane and the junction of the main road to Colne which ‘the better to see’, young lads like me had to climb up a tree. The two venerable old members who were entrusted with the ceremony were old Henry Pickles and old Stephen Dean , who with Mahogany Mallet and Silver trowel in hand accomplished their work both wisely and well. There were a large number of people assembled to see this great event, including Ministers, Singers
congregation and visitors. Miss Ann Mitchell a lady connected with the Baptists denomination whose ancestors had generously endowed this Church, she sold the
whole of the ground upon which the present Church stands and the adjoining burial ground for the nominal sum of Seven pounds. This handsome and commodious place of worship was considered to be an ornament to the town and was largely attended at that time. 1890 In this year a large New Sunday School was erected at a cost of £1,600 on the site immediately behind the Bethesda Baptist Chapel while in 1905 the Chapel itself was nearly rebuilt and considerably enlarged, and most of the inside was
re-constructed and made anew. To complete all these alterations and improvements, a new and up-to-date organ was procured as a help to Divine Worship in that sacred place.

I853 BETHESDA old-organ. A short story in connection with that instrument, as related by the organ-builder John Laycock on a visit to the writer (and fifteen years after this time) he having come on to put the finishing touches to a Barlick made organ. And the old gentleman seemed proud to repeat the story thus; ‘Mr. Bracewell came to our place at Closes Farm near Glusburn and said “I want to know how soon you can make an organ for the new Baptist Church at Barlick, they are in a great hurry, and must have one soon from somewhere.” Mr. Laycock, the organ builder at once took in the situation and temperament of his new customer by saying “Well Mar Bracewell, I have an organ finished in the workshop and if it suits you, you may have it, and the price is £160. This organ has been made for Cullingworth Church but they cannot agree and decide where to put it. Some of the congregation want it in the Nave whilst the Parson and a few others, prefer to have their new organ in the Chancel and that is the reason why this instrument is here and waiting their decision. However if you (Mr. Bracewell) decide to have it, it’s quite right, and the other people will then have a bit more time to settle matters while I make another. Mr. Bracewell seemed satisfied with this arrangement, and said “Very well, we will have it as it seems to be a Grand instrument and if it’s good enough for them, it will do for us and you can bring the organ to Barlick tomorrow if you like" Such is the early history of the old organ which was opened without delay in the Bethesda Baptist Church and ever after proved itself to be a worthy instrument and a pleasure to hear by the congregation of
that Church and people for just over half a century up to 1905.

1851. William Boothman's and Ralph Appleby’s new shops, built at the corner of Church Street and Newtown in Tom Slater's Orchard. Thus the fine old trees which overhung the street disappeared and the old stone stocks were removed from where the present causeway exists and deposited in Butts Pin-Fold in silent repose. These two old shops were some years ago acquired by the Craven Bank, now amalgamated with the Liverpool Bank whilst other shops followed in succession such as Henry Townson’s in 1855 Opposite Butts Top. John Slater’s in 1856 at the top of Mill Lane and Wellhouse Road. While strange to say scarcely any new cottage property was built up to about 1852. The tacklers at Butts erected five houses for their own use in the Long Ing Lane. John Slater of Barlick Lane built six houses and his brother (Harry) built a like number, both lots in St. James' square. However some of the
natives who had no factory hands had to leave their houses and find shelter as best they could, inasmuch as several houses had become the temporary property of the Mill Owner who thus had first claim.

Barlick in years gone by was under the rule and authority of Skipton where all plans for building here had to be submitted and passed before any operations commenced. Several blunders were allowed to pass whilst to rectify some of the same will be a great expense for the town. One specimen will suffice (out of many) in proof of this assertion. Mitchell Terrace, Manchester Road being allowed to build their front garden walls right close up to the channel and thus ignore their neighbours causeway, namely Bethesda.

At the south side of Butts, Mr. Bracewell was allowed to dig a hole on the side of the street and furnish a weighing machine. However after some years the same was removed elsewhere.

Town-end Public House. In olden times this place was called ‘Scotch Laddie’ with a gorgeous sign board. representing the full-dress kilted Scot, until the steam engines were invented then its name was changed to ‘Engine Inn’ and again changed to Railway Hotel after the Barlick railway was opened in 1870. The Engine Inn and adjoining property was owned by Mr. Hartley Robinson who erected two new Shops now occupied by the Yorkshire Penny Bank with Solicitors offices in the upper rooms. Mr. Robinson occupied a bit of spare land called ‘Saging Hill’ for cutting-up trees for Clog Soles he being also a clogger. Charlie Robinson, his son left Barlick when a boy and in after life he became a large woollen Manufacturer at Batley, Chas.
Robinson Esq. is now living in retirement at Harrogate and was born at the Engine Inn Barlick his mother being a daughter of old David Duckworth, farmer.

1850. Up to this time there was not a single house from Tom Slater’s Barn (better known as butcher Baldwin’s) Newtown, until Long-Ing was reached, leaving out New Laithe farmhouse, and the two old thatched houses on Canty Hill, and then in ruins. No, not a dwelling house from East end of King Street to Long Ing, either right or left, or even up Blue Pot Lane.

1850. The same may also be said of Town Head. Not a single house on the left side after the Benevolents Chapel, and end of Back Lane, whilst on the right side, a few houses and also a shop were built on the triangle, but Hartley Wilkinson's shop on the same side was there last, and remains so up to this time 1915 at top end of the Club row.

1852. A brisk start was now made in building cottage houses and the centre of the orchard was rapidly being made into streets now called Orchard Street, Garden Street and Market Street. Also on the left side of Newtown as far as the odd house built by
John Swires a tailor whilst on the right side the new houses extended to the bottom of Blue Pot Lane and afterwards a row of houses were built at the top of the same Lane. also houses were built connecting King Street with Newtown by a Club at Gisburn. The Barlick Oddfellows Club also built some cottages in Mill Lane adjoining Sam Bell's new shop. A new shop was built for M. Turner and Sons (before this date) by Mr, Mitchell of Thornton, this was nearly opposite Seven Stars Inn and on the site of an old shippon used by Mr. Tom Smith of that place. All the before named properties were erected by private enterprise and some of the persons who thus speculated were R. Shuttleworth, Higher Park; James Cook, Height Side; Wm Boothman, Richard Broughton, William Broughton, Kelbrook; James Nuttall, Johnny Wigglesworth and perhaps Berwicks of Gisburn, and a Club from [the] same place; William Bradley, Oddfellows and Foresters' Clubs and old Sam and Harry Green. And no doubt there were several others thus engaged in various parts of the town building homes for the working folk at the time. In 1852 old Tommy Hudson of Town Bridge died. He was called a Squire and wore a starched side-board collar, and often a black velvet smoking cap and was said to be a very strong Wesleyan. His fine house door was painted white, with brass knocker on same and he enclosed and pallisaded the causeway to make his house more private.

1855. About this time property was very cheap in Barlick and a plain substantial four roomed-house could be erected for £I00 while a row of houses in Peggy-Field, on changing owners only realized £80-2-6 each house. This Property not being in the main thoroughfare and now called Bethesda Street has not increased in value as the cottage property in Newtown and Rainhall Road has increased. Then, some forty houses were built in that district taking both sides of the street, and none of the same cost more than a hundred pounds, with an average rental of 2/- per week.

Now it may be said that all the cottages in Newtown and Rainhall Road have been made into shops since the erection of Long-Ing Shed in 1887. This ‘change of front’ has been accomplished by the use of iron girders and large plate glass windows whilst
the bedrooms and kitchen remain ‘as before’ and it is not too much to say that all this cottage property, after these alterations are now realizing more than four time the amount of the original rent then. And this present age may truly be classed as a period of ‘rise’ and of course progress as well. The last paragraph does not include the much newer and more modern terrace approaching the Wesleyan Chapel. This system of making shops out of old cottage houses has by no means been confined to Rainhall Road as a large number of houses have been similarly dealt with in various other parts of the town.

1854. CRIMEAN WAR began in March which caused great distress and poverty in Barlick by the Mills stopping for weeks at a time until good news came in March 1856 when the blessings of peace once more dawned upon the community at large. 1854. Erection of Wellhouse Mill and Shed by Mr. William Bracewell on his own estate and afterwards called ‘New Mill’. The Butts premises being considered too limited for further extensions. Old Jim Howarth and Sons were again the Masons, and Rowley built the chimney, assisted by Abe Heaton and its height was sixty yards and great difficulty was experienced in making a proper foundation to carry this immense structure the site being soft black earth. This was also the case in the building of the Mill which was only three stories high and the walls caused much delay by their giving way and getting out of plumb and had several times to be straightened before the third story was completed although the foundations were placed on top of the sod. At this time a steep little hill opposite the Mill and which caused great hindrance to the traffic from the Canal at Coates. This short Vicarage Brow was lowered about four feet or more at the top whilst the sand obtained from this improvement was made good use of along with the lime at the New Mill. While all this was going on, most people had their doubts about where the water had to come
from inasmuch as there were no becks near and these misgivings had arisen from past proof of the insufficiency of water at Butts with its two becks and the Springs Dam into the bargain. However all this seeming obstacle was removed by the construction of two large dams for cooling purposes. These were supplied from a large tank connected with a drain which Mr. Bracewell had obtained permission to make in order to drain the land nearly half way to Cockshott's Canal Bridge and almost parallel with the Canal. [Tha Bowker Drain] The tank being connected to the dams by a small donkey engine pump and running day and night.
1858-9. And yet another enlargement across the end of the Mill and thus forming the shape of the letter ‘T’. Thus when the whole premises were completed, and the two pairs of Mules removed out of the Shed into the new end of the Mill the total number
of spindles were over 88,000 and 728 were the number of looms in the Shed.

Strange, but true, that a six-inch cold water-pipe was laid across the fields and through the street down to Butts Beck from Wellhouse Mill. The same was used for a few years after the latter was completed but was abandoned after the engines at Butts were
supplied with a new invention. All the engines at both Mr, Bracewell's Mills were on the Beam principal while the horizontals or rope movements were not as yet adopted.

1859. The Squire now turned his attention to the erection of Cottage houses, namely thirty houses called ‘Bentham Square’, next the Twenty-Row and later the Nineteen-Row but these 69 houses were altogether inadequate for the requirements of the scores of families coming into the town hence the private builders had to make up for this shortage houses while agents were being sent to different towns in search for more hands by Mr. Bracewell to such places as Luton, St. Albans, Coventry, Devizes, Stamford and other towns. An attempted list of places from whence the ‘hands’ came may be interesting and taking Butts hands first and up to the erection of Wellhouse Mill namely from Todmorden, Ingleton, Black Burton, Settle. Moreton Banks, Rough Lee, Addingham, Horton, Kelbrook, Salterforth, Foulridge and in 1855 from bonny Gazegill.
Whilst the later arrivals for Wellhouse Mill just before 1860 and onwards, came from Airton, Bentham, Bell-Busk, Bordley-Moor, Hawes, Carleton, Gargrave, Grassington Gisburn, Grindleton, Lothersdale and Long Preston, and the large towns before mentioned and procured by the Agents; Mr. George Wellock and his co-partners, acting on behalf of Mr. Bracewell. The writer admits inability to give from memory a perfect list in the article just read the same being only ‘attempted at’.

1858. Now when the two New Mills and the three Sheds were running in Barlick what improvements may thus be safely expected and enjoyed by the majority of the inhabitants of which the following are a few out of the many such changes namely, hearth-rugs and carpets gradually took the place of the formerly bare flags scattered over with sand while paraffin lamps and later gas took the place of the dingy candles. Also the well-stocked wardrobe became an accomplished. Fact. Instead of (in some cases) Sunday and weekday alike. Good food and plenty of it was generally forthcoming and no doubts or fears as to where the next meal was coming, from. And last but not least of all was the dear ‘little nest egg’ which was gradually accumulating in the corner of the drawer by all the not extravagant class of folk who thus utilised the overplus of cash for the ‘rainy day’ or for any other purpose they might have in their minds, and well knowing that the same would be their first and best friend in time of need.

1856. WEST RIDING CONSTABULARY came into operation on September
30th. Barlick contributed a few of its young men to this new organization namely, Charlie Shepherd. Joe Blackburn, Dave O’David’s, Joe Pickles, Will Demain and Will Windle while Johnson Edmondson did not reach the reach the required standard in height and was not accepted on that account. Thomas Waite of ‘Henhouse Farm’ was parish Constable under the old system and had to relinquish that position and hand over the hand-cuffs to the newly appointed officer of the West Riding Force. There was no proper place for prisoners or Police Station until about twenty years after this time, and the same was carried out in an old cottage with a cellar underneath and approached from the outside, opposite the Seven Stars Inn, where old Jeremy Riley officiated in the capacity of Chief Officer for same and afterwards Mr. Parkin, who resided there until the New Police Station was erected after which he became the First Inspector.

1856. New Swell in Gill Church Organ and other minor additional improvements at a cost of £80. This work was entrusted to Mr. John Laycock, Organ Builder, Closes Farm Nr. Glusburn, while the Organist was Mr. Watson of Masham who had recently opened the new organ at Bethesda and caused so much surprise to the musical natives by playing tunes with his feet and having his arms leisurely folded during that wonderful operation.

A short story (which ought to have been included in the West Riding Paragraph before mentioned) Once upon a time it so happened in those days of the old Parish Constable and years before 1856 that a prisoner was handcuffed and taken into the
Seven Stars kitchen and securely tied fast to some part of the iron-work in the fire place, might be the oven-door, there to remain until he could be safely escorted to Skipton. This mighty giant seemingly not content took advantage at the temporary absence of his captor and made a desperate effort to free himself with the result that the whole mass, including the oven, boiler and firegrate were torn from their places and came with a crash flat on the floor while the hero of this little (but true) story
remained a prisoner.

1855. THE PRIMATIVES [sic] IN BARLICK. In this year a devoted woman named Mrs. Lancaster and connected with this Society came to live here and soon made a few friends who for a short time rented the clubroom at the Engine Inn. Services were held and afterwards in an upper room up the steps at the lower end of Newtown, then again in the lower room of same at the end of the ginnel. This room soon became too small and in 1858 Mr. William Bracewell generously gave a plot of land in the Orchard for the erection of a new Primative Methodist Chapel. The foundation stone was laid in July by the Rev. John Hedley and the building was completed in May 1859 to accommodate 250 people and at a cost of £300.; This site is now called Market Street.

1878. In this year this chapel was considered to be inadequate to the growing requirements of the Primatives, and also not up to date, and consequently Mr. Bracewell was again approached and gave the present site in Station Road, valued at £400. In June 1879 the corner stone was laid by Mr. John Eastwood and Mr. Robert
Anderson. In September 1880 when the building was completed the Rev. Thomas Markwell occupied the pulpit on the first opening Sunday. On the second Sunday, the Rev. W. Rowe, on the third Sunday the Rev Josiah Woods M.A. While to complete the Musical part of the service, a grand organ was built by Laycock & Bannisters of Cross Hills at a cost of about £325. And this last event brings the history of the Primative Methodists up to the year 1911 and now called ‘Bethel Primative Methodist Church’.
I850 – 1860. Up to the middle of this decade, there was not a single piano or harmonium in all Barlick excepting ‘Newfield Edge’. The first two such table Pianos were billeted in Tackler Row at Mr. James Lowcock’s and Mr. Joseph Edmondson's, Newtown, while a good harmonium was procured for the Town Head Chapel and a similar such Instrument was bought by J. W. Thornber and the cottage half-upright piano became the general favourite, while in less than twenty years these were to be counted by the score and this increase in the numbers has continued altogether up
to the present time 1915 while the Harmonium has disappeared altogether and the American (so called) organ has taken its place. Next followed in rapid succession the sewing machine, the first of which came to Christopher Sutcliffe’s Tailor Folly. The next one to John Waites' at Dam-Head Farm for his daughter Grace, while both sewing and wringing machines soon became indispensable in a great many households. At this time a young Mechanic named Dick Hanson was busy trying to construct a Traction Engine and was almost successful (at Dam Head). Dick was at same time successful in hooping Grace’s finger and he ultimately left the town.

I855. Riding the stang, This was the last occasion at which this silly old custom was performed In Barlick and the coarse and insulting language used on these occasions, also the names of the victims will be best left alone altogether.

1855 to 1865. About this time a curious fashion for women folk became popular. This new style of adornment was called a ‘Crinoline’ and was just the very opposite degree of fashion now passing away called the ‘Hobble Skirt’ and both of these extremes may be classed as a ‘Wee Bit Silly’ while the Crinoline might thus be preferred as allowing plenty of room for the wearer to stride. Yet when the same had to encounter a limited space such as connects one field with another then all their skill and dexterity were required in order to accomplish a graceful manipulation of the task. However, the old say is that ‘practice makes perfect’ and let us hope it did so.
Leg-a-Mutton Inverted sleeves, just a rub for the men folk. This style may also be classed among the silly whims of fashion and consisted in the men’s coat sleeves being made tight fitting down to the elbow after which they became gradually wider until they reached the enormous width of 18 Inches at the bottom and the same were stitched some nine times round and faced inside with red silk. Surely this kind of cuff allowed plenty of fresh airy and formed a miniature crinoline all around the wrist. After this, both sexes hands and say ‘we might as well be out of t’nation, as be out of fashion’. However the crinoline fashion did not last more than ten years and the men’s Leg-a-Mutton sleeves for a much shorter period. When men began to wear their watches in their waistcoat pocket with ‘Albert’ across the same and discarded the trousers fob with its dangling bunch of seals outside. About this time a new fashion for men’s trousers came into vogue, fly fronts and still remains so, but a certain amount of prejudice had to be overcome before the same became general and it was the writer's unhappy lot to experience a bit of this stupidity on one occasion when a garment of this description was taken to a customer's home. The Mrs. flew into a ‘tantrum’ saying ‘who ordered them that way? Take ‘em back, or else they go on't back o’t fire’. A quick exit was made by the tailor who left the good lady to cool down at her leisure. ‘Such is fate. Grin and bide it.’

1851. SALTERFORTH EBENEZER BAPTIST CHAPEL erected. 1903 New Baptist Church erected at Salterforth and former Chapel used as a School.
Salterforth; Date on house near Canal Bridge 1778. Robert Broughton, Mason.

I850 to 1860. At the beginning of this period funeral cards became fashionable. The first such card seen by the writer was in 1850 and originated at the burying (funeral) of a Forrester, Joseph Marshall, T. Atkinson being a Forrester brought home from this funeral our first such card which had the following verse printed on same: ‘We shall from Sodom flee when perfected in love and haste to better Company who wait for us above’. From this time and onwards, funeral cards became quite an adornment on the walls of cottages houses. However, this kind of decoration has disappeared of late years. Also another old custom, common at working-class funerals at this time, has long since disappeared. Namely that each person. who attended a burying were expected to contribute a shilling or more, according to circumstance, while such individual’s were taking their long and last farewell glance. And such gifts were thankfully received by the relative to the deceased who was seated closely thereby. And the object of this custom was to help to defray the expenses (their not being in Barlick up to this time any insurance companies) Of course the usual slice of Currant Loaf and biscuit, carefully folded in white paper and sealed with black wax were distributed to each mourner who kindly attended on these solemn occasions, which were sometimes called by certain thoughtless persons a ‘currant loaf and slow walking procession’.


Author Replies  
Keeper of the Scrolls

2010 Posts
Posted - 18/01/2005 : 00:50
Bump - its a good read Go to Top of Page
Local Historian & Old Fart

36804 Posts
Posted - 18/01/2005 : 05:48
Atkinson is brilliant. I often reflect that what we are doing on Oneguy follows directly in his footsteps. The most trivial reply in the forum topics will be good social history in 100 years time.

Stanley Challenger Graham

Barlick View
stanley at Go to Top of Page
Senior Member

4249 Posts
Posted - 18/01/2005 : 09:44
Thanks Doc
I found this article very absorbing, I loved the details of daily life. I will read it again to gain more insight. Now for Part 2.Go to Top of Page
Regular Member

706 Posts
Posted - 18/01/2005 : 11:32
Excellent stuff, well done Doc.

Never trust an electrician with no eyebrows! Go to Top of Page
Regular Member

51 Posts
Posted - 18/01/2005 : 13:48
Thanks for such an absorbing article, I daren't start to read part 2 yet as I have spent so long reading part 1, I will have to wait till tomorrow to continue it.

Bossyboots Go to Top of Page
Local Historian & Old Fart

36804 Posts
Posted - 18/01/2005 : 15:11
It's worth mentioning that if you right click on the text and run the cursor down the article it will delect the text. Right click again to copy to clipboard paste into a word document and then save it to your hard disk. You can then print it out and have a proper read. Sorry if you all knew this.......

Stanley Challenger Graham

Barlick View
stanley at Go to Top of Page
Local Historian & Old Fart

36804 Posts
Posted - 05/02/2007 : 03:30
Just a reminder of the treasures in the archive.....

Stanley Challenger Graham

Barlick View
stanley at Go to Top of Page

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