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Posted -  22/01/2008  :  20:17
Did anybody watch BBC2 on Mon. 21st, 2008 @ 11.20pm re a program about the Atom,.it was totally fascinating, i always revered the  early Engineers, but the scientists, Rutherford& Bohl, just two of many who worked after Einstein, developed Quatum Physics, and even though the presenter,Jim Al-Khalli explained in very basic terms it was still mind boggling, it seems that all we know is based on a law of uncertainty &  so far no one  has proved it does'nt work , but that it does. One thing i was not aware of that one of the foremost centers of study was financed in the 1925/30s in Denmark by the Carlsberg Brewery, I wonder if this as anthing to do with the confusion?. By the way Einstein died disputing the Quantum theory.


"You can only make as well as you can measure"
                           Joseph Whitworth
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Local Historian & Old Fart

36804 Posts
Posted - 23/01/2008 : 06:13
Yes, I watched it.  A totally fascinating subject including the Quantum Conference. 

Stanley Challenger Graham

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5150 Posts
Posted - 23/01/2008 : 09:52
The Carlsberg Foundation was started by the Jacobsen family (founders of the brewery) in 1876 in order to run the Carlsberg Laboratory. To finance its works, the foundation received a portion of shares in Carlsberg Brewery. J.C. Jacobsen's wish was to create a foundation with firm obligations to natural sciences and direct responsibility for running of a corporate enterprise.Niels Bohr (born 7 Oct 1885 in Copenhagen) studied at the University of Copenhagen which he entered in 1903. At university Bohr could not carry out physics experiments since there was no physics laboratory. However his father had a physiology laboratory and his first paper describes experimental work in physics which he carried out in that laboratory. He won the Gold Medal for 1906 from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences for his analysis of vibrations of water jets as a means of determining surface tension. He received his Master's degree from the University of Copenhagen in 1909 and his doctorate in May 1911 for a thesis entitled Studies on the electron theory of metals.

Bohr applied to the Carlsberg Foundation for a travel grant in May 1911 and, after the award was made, went to England in September 1911 to study with Sir J.J. Thomson at Cambridge. He he did not get on well with Thomson and, after a meeting with Ernest Rutherford in Cambridge in December 1911, Bohr moved to Rutherford's group at the Victoria University, Manchester (now the University of Manchester) in March 1912. Rutherford had published a major work showing that the bulk of the mass of an atom resided in the nucleus.

He worked with Rutherford's group on the structure of the atom. It is said that Rutherford became Bohr's role model both for his personal and scientific qualities. Using quantum ideas due to Planck and Einstein, Bohr conjectured that an atom could exist only in a discrete set of stable energy states.

On 24 July 1912 Bohr left Rutherford's group in Manchester and returned to Copenhagen to continue to develop his new theory of the atom, completing the work in 1913. Things did not go according to plan in Copenhagen and Bohr decided to return to Manchester. World War I began while he was on holiday in the Tyrol before travelling to Manchester and thus his journey was extremely difficult. He and his wife arrived in Manchester in October 1914 having sailed round the north of Scotland through severe storms on their way.

In 1917 Bohr was elected to the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and he began to plan for an Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen. This was created for him with funds from the Carlsberg Foundation and opened in 1921 with him as its director, a position he held for the rest of his life. The Institute has been described as "a Mecca for theoretical physicists from all over the world, and after 1933 a refuge for a good many scientists who had fled from Hitler's Germany. Their social centre was the mansion `Gamle Carlsberg' [Old Carlsberg], given to the nation by the founder of the well-known brewery and placed at Niels Bohr's disposal in 1932."

For a full account see:

Carlsberg Foundation was founded by J.C. Jacobsen in 1876 and owns 51% of Carlsberg. The purpose of the foundation is to (1) run and fund Carlsberg Laboratory, (2) the museum at Frederiksborg Palace, (3) to fund scientific research, (4) run the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek and (5) - via the Tuborg Foundation - to fund social works and support other works beneficial to society.


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