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Posted -  28/02/2006  :  15:00


The following games are described in this chapter:

• All-around Athletic Championship
• Archery
• Association Football
• Badminton
• Balli-callie
• Bandy
• Baseball
• Basket Ball
• Bean Bag
• Best College Athletic Records
• Blind Man's Buff
• Boulder On
• Bull in the Ring
• Call Ball
• Cane Rush
• Canoe Tilting
• Cat, or Cattie
• Counting-out Rhymes
• Court Tennis
• Cricket
• Croquet
• Curling
• Dixie's Land
• Duck on the Rock
• Equestrian Polo
• Fat
• Feather Race
• Foot-and-a-half
• Football
• Garden Hockey
• Golf
• Golf-Croquet
• Hab-Enihan
• Haley Over
• Hand Ball
• Hand Polo
• Hand Tennis
• Hat Ball
• Hide and Seek
• High Kick
• Hockey
• Hop Over
• Hop Scotch
• Hunkety
• Hunt the Sheep
• Intercollegiate Amateur Athletic Association of America
• I Spy
• Jack Fagots
• Jai-A-Li
• Japanese Fan Ball
• Kick the Stick
• King of the Castle
• Knuckle There
• Lacrosse
• Lawn Bowls
• Lawn Bowling
• Lawn Hockey
• Lawn Skittles
• Lawn Tennis
• Last Tag
• Luge-ing
• Marathon Race
• Marbles
• Mumblety Peg
• Names of Marbles
• Nigger Baby
• Olympic Games
• One Old Cat
• Over the Barn
• Pass It
• Pelota
• Plug in the Ring
• Polo
• Potato Race
• Prisoner's Base
• Push Ball
• Quoits
• Racquets or Rackets
• Red Line
• Red Lion
• Roley Boley
• Roque
• Rowing Record
• Rubicon
• Sack Racing
• Scotland's Burning
• Skiing
• Soccer
• Spanish Fly
• Squash
• Stump Master
• Suckers
• Tether Ball
• Tether Tennis
• Three-Legged Racing
• Tub Racing
• Volley Ball
• Warning
• Washington Polo
• Water
• Water Race
• Wicket Polo
• Wolf and Sheep
• Wood Tag
• Yank

While all the games and sports described in this chapter are not absolutely confined to outdoors, almost any game in which violent physical exercise results is better if played in the open air rather than in a house or gymnasium. In fact, we should only play indoors when the weather makes it impossible for us to be outside.
There are very few indoor games that cannot be played in the open air with proper apparatus or rules. It is also equally true that many of our outside sports may be played indoors with certain modifications.

This contest was instituted in America in 1884 to give athletes an opportunity to demonstrate their ability in all-around work. The contest is rapidly becoming the blue ribbon championship event in America for track athletes. The following ten events are contested for:
• 100-yard dash
• High jump
• Long jump
• Vault
• Throwing 16-pound hammer
• Putting a 16-pound shot
• Throwing 56-pound weight
• 120-yard hurdle race
• Half-mile walk
• One-mile run
The system of scoring in the All-around Championship is complicated. Each contestant has his score made up independently. The world's best amateur record is taken as a basis and 1,000 points are allowed for it. For example, the best record (amateur) for the 100-yard dash is 9 4/5 seconds and for each 1/5 of a second more than this that the runner in the All-around Championship contest makes in his trial 42 points are deducted from this score. The same method is used in all the events. In the ten events the maximum score where the contestant equalled every world's record would be 10,000 points. The contest was won in 1909 by the remarkable score of 7,385 points.

Archery is the art of shooting with a bow and arrow. It is especially adapted as a lawn game for ladies and gentlemen, but boys and girls can practise archery and become proficient with bows and arrows just as the Indians were or the boys in England in the days of Robin Hood. Of course the invention of gunpowder has practically done away with the bow and arrow either as a means of warfare or as a weapon to be used in the chase, but it is still used by savages.
The modern bow used in archery is made of lancewood or yew and for men's use is usually 6 feet long and for women and children 6 inches shorter. The strength or pull necessary to bend the bow, given in pounds, determines its classification. The arrows for men's use should be 28 inches long and for women 24 to 25 inches. The target is a straw-filled canvas disk painted in bright colours. There are usually five circles and the object in archery, as in shooting with firearms, is to hit either the centre ring or "bull's-eye" or as near to it as possible. In scoring, a shot in the inner gold centre counts nine; red ring, seven; inner white ring, five; black ring, three, and outer white ring, one. Targets are of various sizes from 18 inches in diameter to 4 feet, depending on the distance of the range. A common distance will be from 50 to 100 yards.
Each archer should have some distinguishing mark or colour on his arrows. Standard lancewood bows will cost two or three dollars, arrows from one to two dollars a dozen, and targets from two to five dollars each, with three dollars extra for the target stand.
In championship matches in archery the customary range for men is 60 yards with 96 arrows, and the same number of arrows at 50 yards for women. A recent match championship was decided for men with 90 hits and a total score of 458, and for women with 85 hits and a total score of 441.

A game similar to Rugby football except that it more closely resembles what its name implies and kicking predominates. A round, leather-covered ball is used and the game is considered to be much safer than our college football. Efforts consequently have been made to introduce the game into American colleges because of its less dangerous character. As there is practically no tackling or falling, the "soccer" uniform does not require the same amount of padding as a Rugby player's uniform. The game is ordinarily played in running trousers with a full sleeved shirt and special shoes with leather pegs or cleats. The stockings are rolled down just below the knee. The association football goal net into which the ball is kicked is fastened to the ground and is made of tarred rope. Thus far, the game has not been very popular in America, although a number of exhibition match games have recently been played by visiting English teams which attracted considerable attention. As a game, soccer is fast and exciting, and splendid opportunities are given for team work; but for some reason it has not succeeded in displacing our American game of Rugby, although possibly it is more interesting for the spectator.

An English outdoor game similar to lawn tennis but played with shuttlecocks. The net is five feet above the ground. The shuttlecock is a cork in which feathers have been inserted. The shuttlecock is served and returned as in tennis and either two or four may play. A badminton court is 30 feet wide and 44 feet long.

A game very similar to hockey, except that it is played out of doors instead of in a covered rink and a ball is used in place of a puck or rubber disk.
The name "bandy" is sometimes applied also to shinney or shinty and in England it is also applied to our American game of ice hockey.

The national game of America. (See chapter on baseball.) The game is played by eighteen persons, nine on a side, called "nines." The positions are pitcher, catcher, first base, second base, third base, shortstop, right-field, left-field, centre-field. The first six positions are called the in-field, and the last three, the out-field. The diamond or field where the game is played is a square plot of ground with sides ninety feet long. At each corner of the square are bases called first, second, third and home plate. A game consists of nine innings, in each of which both teams have an opportunity to bat the ball and to score runs. The players bat in turn and attempt to reach the various bases without being put out by their opponents. Each year the rules are changed in some slight particulars, consequently a beginner in baseball must be thoroughly familiar with the rules of the game before attempting to play. The pitcher attempts to pitch the ball over the home plate to the catcher and the batsman endeavours to hit it. If the ball after being hit is caught by one of the opposing players, or if it is thrown to the base to which the batsman is running before he reaches the base, he is "out." Otherwise he is "safe" and will try to make the next base. If he completes the circuit of the four bases without being put out, he scores a run for his team or nine. When a player makes the entire circuit without being forced to stop for safety he makes a "home run." A hit which gains him a single base only is called a "base hit." Similarly if he reaches second base it is a "two-bagger," and third base, a "three-bagger."
After three players are put out, the other side has its "innings," and at the completion of nine full innings the side having scored the greatest number of runs is the winner. The game of baseball has become very scientific and the salaries of professional players are almost as high as those of the highest salaried men in business life.
The ball used in the game is made of the best all wool yarn with a horsehide cover and a rubber centre. Baseball bats are usually made of ash.

A game of ball which may be played either indoors or out, but which is especially adapted to in-door play when weather conditions make out-door sports impossible. Two baskets suspended on wire rings are placed at the two opposite ends of a room or gymnasium and the players strive to knock or pass the ball from one to another on their own side and to throw it so that it will fall into the basket. It is not permissible to run with the ball as in Rugby football. The ball used is round, but in other respects resembles the ball used in football. It is made in four sections of grained English leather and is inflated by means of a rubber bladder. The players use rubber-soled shoes with peculiar knobs, ridges, or depressions to prevent slipping. The conventional uniform is simply a gymnasium shirt, running trousers, and stockings which are rolled down just below the knees.
The game of basket ball is especially adapted to women and girls and consequently it is played very largely in girls' schools and colleges.
Any level space may be used for basket ball. A convenient size is 40 by 60 feet. The baskets used for goals are 18 inches in diameter and are fixed 10 feet above the ground or floor. The official ball weighs about 18 ounces and is 31 inches in circumference. Five players constitute a team. The halves are usually twenty minutes, with a ten-minute intermission for rest.
It is not permissible to kick, carry or hold the ball. Violation of a rule constitutes a foul and gives the opponents a free throw for the basket from a point fifteen feet away. A goal made in play counts two points and a goal from a foul one point.

This game is known to every one by name and yet its simple rules are often forgotten. A couple of dozen bean bags are made in two colours of muslin. The players stand in two lines opposite each other and evenly divided. At the end of the line is a clothes basket. The bags are placed on two chairs at the opposite end of the line and next to the two captains. At a signal the captains select a bag and pass it to the next player, who passes it along until finally it is dropped into the basket. When all the bags are passed they are then taken out and passed rapidly back to the starting point. The side whose bags have gone up and down the line first scores a point. If a bag is dropped in transit it must be passed back to the captain, who starts it again. Five points usually constitute a game.

These records have been made in the Intercollegiate contests which are held annually under the Intercollegiate Amateur Athletic Association of America.
100-yard dash 9 4/5 seconds made in 1896
220-yard dash 21 1/5 seconds made in 1896
440-yard dash 48 4/5 seconds made in 1907
Half-mile run 1 min. 56 seconds made in 1905
One-mile run 4 min. 17 4/5 seconds made in 1909
Two-mile run 9 min. 27 3/5 seconds made in 1909
Running broad jump 24 feet 4 1/2 in. made in 1899
Running high jump 6 feet 3 1/4 in. made in 1907
Putting 16-pound shot 46 feet 5 1/2 in. made in 1907
Throwing the hammer 164 feet 10 in. made in 1902
Pole vault 12 feet 3 1/4 in. made in 1909
120-yard high hurdle 15 1/5 seconds made in 1908
220-yard hurdle 23 3/5 seconds made in 1898
One-mile walk 6 min. 45 2/5 seconds made in 1898

This game is played in two ways. In each case one player is blindfolded and attempts to catch one of the others and to identify him by feeling. In regular blind man's buff, the players are allowed to run about at will and sometimes the game is dangerous to the one blindfolded, but in the game of "Still Pon" the one who is "it" is turned several times and then announces, "Still Pon no more moving," and awards a certain number of steps, which may be taken when in danger of capture. After this number is exhausted the player must stand perfectly still even though he is caught.

In this game the players form a circle with clasped hands. To be "bull" is the position of honour. The bull is supposed to be locked in by various locks of brass, iron, lead, steel, and so on. He endeavours to break through the ring by catching some of the players off their guard. He will then run until captured, and the one who catches him has the position of bull for the next game. In playing, it is customary for the bull to engage one pair of players in conversation by asking some question such as "What is your lock made of?" At the answer, brass, lead, etc., he will then make a sudden rush at some other part of the ring and try to break through.

In this game a rubber ball is used. One of the players throws it against a wall and as it strikes calls out the name of another player, who must catch it on its first bounce. If he does so he in turn then throws the ball against the wall, but if he misses he recovers it as quickly as possible while the rest scatter, and calls "stand," at which signal all the players must stop. He then throws it at whoever he pleases. If he misses he must place himself against the wall and each of the others in turn has a free shot at him with the ball.

This contest is usually held in colleges between the rival freshman and sophomore classes. A cane is held by some non-contestant and the two classes endeavour by pulling and pushing and hauling to reach the cane and to hold their hands on it. At the end of a stated time, the class or side having the most hands on the cane is declared the winner. It is a very rough and sometimes dangerous game and in many colleges has been abolished on account of serious injuries resulting to some of the contestants.

This is a revival of the ancient game of tilting as described in "Ivanhoe," except that the tilters use canoes instead of horses and blunt sticks in place of spears and lances. The object is for the tilter to shove his opponent out of his canoe, meanwhile seeing to it that the same undesirable fate does not fall to his own lot. In singles each contestant paddles his own canoe with one end of his pike pole, but the sport is much greater if each canoe has two occupants, one to paddle and the other to do the "tilting".

A small block of wood pointed at both ends is used in this game. The batter strikes it with a light stick and as it flies into the air attempts to bat it with the stick. If the cat is caught the batter is out. Otherwise he is entitled to a score equal to the number of jumps it will take him to reach the place where the cat has fallen. He then returns to bat again and continues until he is caught out.

Almost every section has some favourite counting-out rhyme of its own. Probably the two most generally used are:
"My mother told me to take this one,"
and that old classic—
"Eeny, meeny, miny, mo.Catch a nigger by the toe;If he hollers, let him go.Eeny, meeny, miny, mo."
This is also varied into
"Ena, mena, mona, mite.Pasca, laura, bona, bite.Eggs, butter, cheese, bread.Stick, stock, stone dead."
The object of a counting-out rhyme is to determine who is to be "it" for a game. As each word is pronounced by the counter some one is pointed at, and at the end of the verse the one last pointed at is "it."

This game, though very similar to rackets and squash, is more scientific than either. The court is enclosed by four walls. A net midway down the court divides the "service" side from the "hazard" side. The rackets used in court tennis have long handles and a large face. The balls used are the same size as tennis balls, but are heavier and stronger. In play, the ball rebounds over the court and many shots are made against the roof. While somewhat similar to lawn tennis, the rules of court tennis are extremely complicated. The game is scored just as in lawn tennis, except that instead of calling the server's score first the marker always announces the score of the winner of the last stroke.

A game of ball which is generally played in England and the British provinces, but which is not very popular in the United States. There are two opposite sides or sets of players of eleven men each. At two points 22 yards apart are placed two wickets 27 inches high and consisting of three sticks called stumps. As in baseball, one side takes the field and the other side is at the bat. Two men are at bat at a time and it is their object to prevent the balls from being bowled so that they will strike the wickets. To do this a broad bat is used made of willow with a cane handle, through which are inserted strips of rubber to give greater spring and driving power. The batsman will either merely stop the ball with his bat or will attempt to drive it. When the ball is being fielded the two batsmen exchange wickets, and each exchange is counted as a run, and is marked to the credit of the batsman or striker. The batsman is allowed to bat until he is out. This occurs when the ball strikes the wicket and carries away either a bail, the top piece, or a stump, one of the three sticks. He is also out if he knocks down any part of his own wicket or allows the ball to do it while he is running, or if he interferes with the ball by any part of his person as it is being thrown, or if one of the opposing players catches a batted ball before it touches the ground, as in baseball.
When ten of the eleven men on a side have been put out it constitutes an inning, and the side in the field takes its turn at the bat. The game usually consists of two innings, and at its completion the side having scored the greater number of runs is the winner. The eleven positions on a cricket team are called bowler, wicket-keeper, long stop, slip, point cover-slip, cover-point, mid-off, long-leg, square-leg, mid-on. The one at bat is, as in baseball, called the batsman. The two lines between which the batsmen stand while batting are called "popping creases" and "bowling creases."

A game played with wooden balls and mallets, on a flat piece of ground. The game consists in driving the ball around a circuitous course through various wire rings called "wickets" and, after striking a wooden peg or post, returning to the starting place. Any number may play croquet either independently or on sides. Each player may continue making shots as long as he either goes through a wicket, hits the peg or post, or hits the ball of an opponent. In this latter case he may place his ball against that of his opponent and, holding the former with his foot, drive his opponent's ball as far as possible from the croquet ground. He then also has another shot at his wicket.
A croquet set consists of mallets, balls, wickets, and stakes and may be bought for two or three dollars. Experts use mallets with much shorter handles than those in common sets. They are made of either maple, dogwood, or persimmon. In place of wooden balls, championship and expert games are often played with balls made of a patented composition. All croquet implements are usually painted in bright colours. The game of "roque" is very similar to croquet.
Croquet can be made more difficult by using narrow arches or wickets. Hard rubber balls are more satisfactory than wood and also much more expensive.
As a rule the colours played in order are red, white, blue and black. According to the rules any kind of a mallet may be used, depending upon the individual preference of the player.

An ancient Scotch game played on the ice, in which the contestants slide large flat stones, called curling stones, from one point to another. These points or marks are called "tees." In playing, an opportunity for skill is shown in knocking an opponent out of the way, and also in using a broom ahead of the stone as it slides along to influence its rate of speed.
At the present time the greatest curling country is Canada. Curling is one of the few outdoor games that are played without a ball of some kind.

This game is also called "Tommy Tiddler's Land." It is a game of tag in which a certain portion of the playground is marked off as the "land." The one who is "it" endeavours to catch the others as they invade his land. When a player is tagged he also becomes "it," and so on until the game ends because all the invaders are captured. The game is especially interesting because of the variety of verses and rhymes used in various parts of the country to taunt the one who is "it" as they come on his land.

This game is also called "Boulder Up." It is not customary to "count out" to decide it. For this game usually some one suggests, "Let's play Duck on a Rock," and then every one scurries around to find an appropriate stone, or "duck." As fast as they are found the fact is announced by the cry, "My one duck," "My two duck," etc. The last boy to find a stone is "drake," or "it."
The drake is larger than the ducks and is placed on an elevated position such as a boulder. Then from a specified distance ducks attempt to hit the drake and to knock him from his position. If they miss they are in danger of being tagged by the drake, as it is his privilege to tag any player who is not in possession of his duck. If, however, the drake is knocked from his perch, the ducks have the privilege of rushing in and recovering their stones, but unless they do so before the drake replaces his stone on the rock they may be tagged. The first one tagged becomes "it" and the drake becomes a duck.

This is the universal game of marbles. It is sometimes called "Yank," or "Knuckle There." A ring is scratched in the ground a foot or two in diameter. It is then divided into four parts by two lines drawn through the diameter. The first step is for each player to "lay a duck," which in simple language means to enter a marble to be played for. This is his entrance fee and may be either a "dub," an "alley," a "crystal," or sometimes a "real," although this is very rare as well as extravagant. About ten feet from this ring a line is made called a "taw line." The first player, usually determined as soon as school is out by his having shouted, "First shot, fat!" stands behind the taw line and shoots to knock out a marble. If he is successful he continues shooting; if not he loses his turn and Number 2 shoots. Number 1 after his first shot from the taw line must then shoot from wherever his marble lies. If Number 2 can hit Number 1 he has a right to claim all the marbles that Number 1 has knocked out of the ring. In this way it is very much to the advantage of each player to leave himself as far from the taw line as possible.

The contestants endeavour to blow a feather over a certain course in the shortest time. The rule is that the feather must not be touched with the hands. Out of doors this game is only possible on a very still day.

This is a game of "Leap Frog" also called "Par" or "Paw." One of the boys is chosen "down," who leans over and gives a "back" to the rest, who follow leader, usually the boy who suggests the game. He will start making an easy jump at first and over "down's" back, then gradually increase the distance of the point at which he lands, and each of those following must clear this line or become "it" themselves. The leader must also surpass his previous jumps each time or he becomes "down" himself. In this way the smaller or less agile boys have a more equal chance with the stronger ones.

The present game of football as played in American schools and colleges is a development of the English game of Rugby. There are twenty-two players, eleven on a side or team. The game is played on a level field, at each end of which are goal posts through which the team having the ball in its possession attempts to force or "rush" it, while their opponents by various means, such as tackling, shoving or blocking, strive to prevent the ball from being successfully forced behind the goal line or from being kicked over the crossbar between the goal-posts. A football field is 330 feet long by 160 feet wide. It is usually marked out with white lines five yards apart, which gives the field the name of "gridiron." The various positions on a football team are centre rush, right and left guards, right and left tackles, right and left ends, quarter-back, right and left half-back, and full-back. As in baseball, the rules of football are constantly being changed and the game as played ten or fifteen years ago is very different from the modern game. The various changes in rules have been made with a view to making the game less dangerous to the players and more interesting to the spectator.
The principal scores in football are the "touchdown" and the "field goal." In a touchdown the ball is carried by one of the players and touched on the ground behind the opponents' goal line. In a field goal, or, as it is often called, "a goal from the field," the ball is kicked over the crossbar between the goal posts. In a field goal the player executing it must not kick the ball until after it has touched the ground. Such a kick is called a "drop kick" as distinguished from a "punt" where the ball is released from the hands and immediately kicked before touching the ground. A team in possession of the ball is allowed a certain number of attempts to advance it the required distance. Each of these attempts is called a "down." If they fail to gain the necessary distance, the ball goes to their opponents. It is customary on the last attempt, or down, to kick the ball so that when the opposing team obtains possession of it it will be as far as possible from the goal line toward which they are rushing. In this play a "punt" is allowed. There are also other scores. A safety is made when a team is forced to touch the ball down behind its own goal line.
The ball used in American football is a long oval case made of leather and inflated by means of a rubber bag or envelope. The football player's uniform consists of a heavily padded pair of trousers made of canvas, moleskin, khaki or other material, a jacket made of the same material, a tight-fitting jersey with elbow and shoulder pads, heavy stockings, and cleated shoes. Players will often use other pads, braces and guards to protect them from injury. Football is usually played in the fall months after baseball has been discontinued on account of the cold weather. A full game consists of four fifteen-minute periods.

This game is played between two parallel straight lines, 3 feet 6 inches apart and marked on the lawn with two strips of tape. At the opposite two ends of the tape are two goal posts 14 inches apart with a crossbar. The length of the tapes should be 36 feet when two or four players engage in the game, and may be extended for a greater number. The game is played with balls and hockey sticks. The game is started by placing the ball in the centre of the field. The two captains then face each other and at a signal strike off. If the ball is driven outside the tape boundaries it must be returned to the centre of the field opposite the place where it crossed the line. The object of the game is to score a goal through your opponents' goal posts as in ice hockey. If a player steps over the tape into the playing space he commits a foul. The penalty for a foul is a free hit for his opponents.

A game played over an extensive piece of ground which is divided into certain arbitrary divisions called holes. A golf course is usually undulating with the holes laid out to afford the greatest possible variety of play. The ordinary course consists of either nine or eighteen holes from 100 to 500 yards apart. An ideal course is about 6000 yards long. The holes which mark the termination of a playing section consist of tin cans 4 inches in diameter sunk into and flush with the level of the surrounding turf, which is called "the putting green." The game is played with a gutta-percha ball weighing about 1 3/4 ounces and with a set of "clubs" of various odd shapes and for making shots under various conditions. Usually a boy accompanies each player to carry his clubs. Such boys are called "caddies." The clubs are peculiarly named and it is optional with each player to have as many clubs as he desires. Some of the more common ones are called "driver," "brassie," "cleek," "iron," "mashie," "niblick," "putter," and "lofting iron."
The game, which may be played by either two or four players, consists in endeavouring to drive the ball over the entire course from hole to hole in the fewest possible number of strokes. At the start a player takes his position on what is called the "teeing ground" and drives the ball in the direction of the first hole, the position of which is shown in the distance by a flag or tin sign with a number. Before driving he is privileged to place the ball on a tiny mound of earth or sand which is called a "tee." The players drive in order and then continue making shots toward the hole until finally they have all "holed out" by "putting" their balls into the hole, and the lowest score wins the hole.
Golf is a game in which form is more essential than physical strength and which is adapted for elderly people as well as the young. The wooden clubs are usually made with either dogwood or persimmon heads and with split hickory handles or shafts. The handles are usually wound with a leather grip. Golf clubs of good quality will cost from two to three dollars apiece and a set for most purposes will consist of four to six clubs. The caddy bag to carry the clubs is made of canvas or leather and will cost from two dollars up. Standard quality golf balls will cost about nine dollars a dozen. Almost any loose-fitting outdoor costume is suitable for playing golf and the tendency in recent years is to wear long trousers in preference to what are known as "golf trousers."
A golf course—sometimes called a "links," from a Scotch word meaning a flat stretch of ground near the seashore—should be kept in good condition in order to enjoy the game properly. The leading golf clubs maintain a large force of men who are constantly cutting the grass, repairing damages to the turf, and rolling the greens. For this reason it is a game only adapted to club control unless one is very wealthy and can afford to maintain private links.
This game may be played either by two or four persons. Wickets are placed at irregular distances, and the object of the game is to drive a wooden ball 2 3/4 inches in diameter through these wickets. It may be played either as "all strokes," in which the total number of strokes to get through all the wickets is the final score, or as in golf, "all wickets," in which the score for each wicket is taken separately, as each hole in golf is played. The mallet used is somewhat different from a croquet mallet. The handle is longer and a bevel is made on one end to raise or "loft" the ball as in golf.
The size of a golf-croquet course will depend upon the field available. A field 200 yards long will make a good six-wicket course.

This game is played with smooth stones about the size of a butter dish. A target is marked on the sand or on any smooth piece of ground, or if played on the grass the target must be marked with lime similar to marks on a tennis court. The outside circle of the target should be six feet in diameter, and every six inches another circle described with a piece of string and two pegs for a compass.
The object of the game is to stand at a stated distance from the "enihan," or target, and to toss the "habs" as in the game of quoits. The player getting the best score counting from the inside ring or bull's-eye wins the game.

The players, equally divided, take positions on opposite sides of a building such as a barn, so that they can not be seen by their opponents. A player on one side then throws the ball over the roof and one of his opponents attempts to catch it and to rush around the corner of the building and throw it at one of the opposing side. If he succeeds, the one hit is a prisoner of war and must go over to the other side. The game continues until all of one side are captured.

A game of ancient Irish origin which is much played by baseball players and other athletes to keep in good condition during the winter when most outdoor sports are impossible.
A regulation hand ball court has a back wall 30 feet high and 50 feet wide. Each game consists of twenty-one "aces." The ball is 1-7/8 inches in diameter and weighs 1 5/8 ounces. The ball is served and returned against the playing wall just as in many of the other indoor games and is similar in principle to squash and rackets.

A game played with a tennis ball in which two opposing sides of six players each endeavour to score goals by striking the ball with the hands. The ball must be struck with the open hand. In play, the contestants oppose each other by shouldering and bucking and in this way the game can be made a dangerous one.
The goal is made into a cage form 3 feet 6 inches square. At the beginning of the game the ball is placed in the centre of the playing surface and the players rush for it. The umpire in hand polo is a very important official and calls all fouls, such as tripping, catching, holding, kicking, pushing, or throwing an opponent. Three fouls will count as a goal for the opponents.

A game of lawn tennis in which the hand is used in place of a racket. A hand tennis court is smaller than a regulation tennis court. Its dimensions are 40 feet long and 16 feet wide. The net is 2 feet high. The server is called the "hand in" and his opponent the "hand out." A player first scoring twenty-five points wins the game. A player can only score when he is the server.
A foul line is drawn 3 feet on each side of the net, inside of which play is not allowed. In all essential particulars of the rules the game is similar to lawn tennis.

This game is very similar to Roley Boley or Nigger Baby except that hats are used instead of hollows in the ground. The ball is tossed to the hats and the first boy to get five stones, or "babies," in his hat has to crawl through the legs of his opponents and submit to the punishment of being paddled.

A tin pan or wooden disk is suspended from a frame by means of a string and the contestants in turn kick it as it is drawn higher and higher until finally, as in high jumping, it reaches a point where the survivor alone succeeds in touching it with his toe.

Hockey is usually played on the ice by players on skates, although, like the old game of shinney, it may be played on any level piece of ground. The hockey stick is a curved piece of Canadian rock elm with a flat blade. Instead of a ball the modern game of ice hockey is played with a rubber disk called a "puck." In hockey, as in many other games, the whole object is to drive the puck into your opponents' goal and to prevent them from driving it into yours. Almost any number of boys can play hockey, but a modern team consists of five players. Hockey skates are of special construction with long flat blades attached to the shoes. The standard length of blade is from 14 1/2 to 15 1/2 inches. They cost from three to six dollars. The hockey player's uniform is a jersey, either padded trousers or tights, depending upon his position, and padded shin guards for the goal tenders.

All but one of the players, form a ring standing about two feet apart. Then by some "counting out" rhyme some one is made "it." He then takes his place in the centre of the circle, holding a piece of stout string on the end of which is tied a small weight or a book. He whirls the string about and tries to strike the feet or ankles of some one in the circle, who must hop quickly as the string comes near him. If he fails to "hop over" he becomes "it."
Hop scotch is a game that is played by children all over the world. A court about 20 feet long and 4 or 5 feet wide is drawn with chalk, coal, or a piece of soft brick on the sidewalk or scratched with a pointed stick on a piece of level ground. A line called the "taw line" is drawn a short distance from the court. The court is divided into various rectangles, usually eleven divisions, although this varies in different sections. At the end of the court a half circle is drawn, variously called the "cat's cradle," "pot," or "plum pudding." The players decide who is to be first, second, etc., and a flat stone or piece of broken crockery or sometimes a folded piece of tin is placed in division No. 1. The stone is called "potsherd." The object of the game is to hop on one foot and to shoot the potsherd in and out of the court through the various divisions until they are all played. He then hops and straddles through the court. Whenever he fails to do the required thing the next player takes his turn.

Two captains are chosen and the players divided into equal sides. One side stays in the home goal and the other side finds a hiding place. The captain of the side that is hidden or "out" then goes back to the other side and they march in a straight line to find the hidden sheep. When they approach the hiding place their own captain shouts, "Apple!" which is a warning that danger is near. When he is sure of their capture or discovery he shouts, "Run, sheep, run!" and all the party make a dash for the goal.

This association controls the field athletic contests between the colleges known as the "Intercollegiates."
It is generally known as the I.C.A.A.A.A. To win a point for one's college in this contest is the highest honour that a track athlete may obtain. In these games, which take place annually, the following thirteen events are contested for:
• Mile run
• Shotput
• 440-yard run
• 120-yard hurdles
• 100-yard dash
• Running high jump
• Two-mile run
• 880-yard run
• 220-yard low hurdles
• Pole vault
• Broad jump
• 220-yard dash
• Hammer throw
This game is sometimes called "Hide and Seek," One of the players is made "it" by any of the familiar counting-out rhymes. The rest then secure a hiding place while he counts fifty or one hundred. A certain tree or fence corner is considered "home." "It" then attempts to spy his hidden playmates in their hiding places and to run "home" shouting, "I spy" and their names. If the one discovered can get home before "it," he does so, shouting, "In free!" with all the breath that is left in him. The game is especially interesting just at dusk, when the uncertain light makes the "outs" brave in approaching home without detection. If "it" succeeds in capturing all the players the first one caught is "it" for the next game.

This game is the same in principle as Jackstraws except that fagots or sticks of wood two feet long are used in place of jackstraws. They are removed from a pile with a crooked stick and must be taken out one at a time without disturbing the rest. The number of sticks removed constitutes a player's score. When any stick other than the one he is trying for is moved he loses his turn. The next player must attempt to remove the same stick that the other failed on. The game is won by the player having the greatest number of sticks to his credit.

This game is especially adapted for a lawn party for girls. Either Japanese fans or the ordinary palm-leaf fans will do for rackets. The balls are made of paper and should be six or eight inches in diameter and in various colours. At opposite ends of a space about the size of a tennis court are erected goal-posts similar to those used in football, but only six feet above ground. These may be made of light strips of wood. There is also a similar pair of posts and a crossbar midway between the goals.
The game is played by two contestants at a time. Each takes an opposite end of the court and tosses the ball into the air. Then by vigorous fanning she endeavours to keep it aloft and to drive it over the opponent's goal-post. At the middle posts the ball must be "fanned" under the crossbar. If the ball falls to the ground it may be picked up on the fan and tossed aloft again, but it must not be touched by the hands. The winner is the one who first drives the ball the length of the court and over the crossbar.

One player is chosen to be "it" and the rest are given a count of twenty-five or fifty to hide. A stick is leaned against a tree or wall and this is the home goal. As soon as the goal keeper can spy one of the players he runs in and touches the stick and makes a prisoner, who must come in and stand behind the stick. If one of the free players can run in and kick the stick before the goal tender touches it, he frees all the rest and they scurry to a place of hiding before the stick can again be set up and the count of twenty-five made. As the object of the game is to free your fellow-prisoners, the free players will attempt all sorts of ruses to approach the stick without being seen or to make a dash for it in hope of kicking it ahead of the goal keeper. The game is over when all the players are captured, and the first prisoner is "it" for the next game.

This can be made a very rough game, as it simply consists in a player taking a position on a mound or hillock and defying any one to dislodge him from his position by the taunting words:
"I'm the King of the Castle,Get down you cowardly rascal."
The rest try to shove him from his position and to hold it successfully against all comers themselves. The game, if played fairly, simply consists in fair pulls and pushes without grasping clothing, but if played roughly it is almost a "free-for-all" fight.

A game of ball played by two opposing teams of twelve players each. The lacrosse field is a level piece of ground with net or wire goals at each end. The players strive to hurl the ball into their opponents' goal by means of a lacrosse stick or "crosse." This is a peculiar bent stick with a shallow gut net at one end. It somewhat resembles a tennis racket, but is more like a snowshoe with a handle. The game originated with the Indians and is much played in Canada.
In playing, the ball must not be touched with the hands, but is hurled from one player to another by the "lacrosses" until it is possible to attempt for a goal. It is also passed when a player is in danger of losing the ball.
Lacrosse sticks cost from two to five dollars each and are made of hickory with rawhide strings. The players wear specially padded gloves to protect the knuckles. The usual uniform for lacrosse is a tight-fitting jersey and running trousers.

This is a very old game and of great historic importance. The famous Bowling Green in New York City was named from a small park where the game was played by New Yorkers before the Revolution. The game is played with wooden balls five inches in diameter and painted in various gay colours. Usually lignum vitae is the material used. They are not perfectly round but either slightly flattened at the poles into an "oblate spheroid" or made into an oval something like a modern football. Each player uses two balls, which are numbered. A white ball, called a "jack ball," is then thrown or placed at the end of the bowling green or lawn and the players in turn deliver their balls or "bowl" toward the jack. The whole game consists in placing your ball as near to the jack as possible and of knocking away the balls of your opponents. It is also possible to strike the jack and to drive it nearer to where the balls of your side are lying. When all the players have bowled, the two balls nearest the jack each count a point for the side owning it. The game if played by sides is somewhat different from a two-handed contest. The main point first is to deliver the ball as near to the jack as possible and then to form a barrier or "guard" behind it with succeeding balls to block those of your adversaries. Sometimes the Jack is placed in the middle of the green and the teams face each other and bowl from opposite ends. A green is about seventy feet square with closely cropped grass. Four players form a "rink" and are named "leader," "second," "third," and "skip" or captain. The position from which the balls are delivered is called the "footer." It is usually a piece of cloth or canvas three feet square.

This game is similar in every respect to indoor bowling except that no regular alley is used. A net for a backstop is necessary. The pins are set upon a flat surface on a lawn and the players endeavour to knock down as many pins as possible in three attempts. The scoring is the same as in indoor bowling. To knock down all ten pins with one ball is called a "strike," in two attempts it is a "spare." In the score, the strike counts ten for the player and in addition also whatever he gets on the next two balls. Likewise he will count ten for a spare, but only what he gets on one ball for a bonus. As a consequence the maximum or perfect score in bowling is 300, which is a series of ten strikes and two more attempts in which he knocks down all the pins. In lawn bowling the scores are very low as compared with the indoor game, where good players will often average close to 200 on alleys where they are accustomed to bowl. Lawn bowling is a different game from lawn bowls, which is described in a preceding paragraph.

This game is played on a field a little smaller than a football field, being 110 yards long and from 50 to 60 yards wide. The ball used is an ordinary cricket ball. The goals are two upright posts 12 feet apart and with a crossbar 7 feet from the ground. Eleven men on a side constitute a full team, but the game may be played with a fewer number. The positions are known as three forwards, five rushes, two backs or guards, and the goal tender.
The object of the game is very simple, being to drive the ball between your opponents' goals. The ordinary ice hockey stick will be satisfactory to play with. The principal thing to remember in lawn hockey is not to commit a "foul," the penalty for which is a "free hit" at the ball by your opponents. It is a foul to raise the stick above the shoulders in making a stroke, to kick the ball (except for the goal tender), to play with the back of the stick, to hit the ball other than from right to left, and any form of rough play such as tripping, pushing, kicking, or striking.
Lawn hockey is an excellent game and is really the old game of "shinney" or "shinty" played scientifically and with definite rules.

From a stout pole which is firmly fixed in the ground a heavy ball is suspended by means of a rope fastened to the top of the pole. Two flat pieces of stone or concrete are placed on opposite sides of the pole. The game is played with nine-pins, which are set up on one stone, the player standing on the other and endeavouring by hurling the ball to strike down a maximum number of pins. Usually he has three chances and the number of pins knocked down constitutes his score.

A game of ball played on a level piece of ground, called a court, by two, three, or four persons. When two play the game is called "singles," and when four play it is called "doubles." The game is played with a rubber ball, and rackets made by stringing gut on a wooden frame. The dimensions of a tennis court are 36 by 78 feet. In addition to this, space must be allowed for the players to run back, and it is customary to lay out a court at least 50 by 100 feet to give plenty of playing space. The court is divided into various lines, either by means of lime applied with a brush or by tapes. Midway between the two rear lines and in the centre of the court a net is stretched, supported by posts.
In playing one of the players has the serve—that is, he attempts to strike the ball so that it will go over the net and into a specified space on the opposite side of the net. His opponent then attempts to return the serve—that is, to strike the ball either on the fly or the first bound and knock it back over the net somewhere within the playing space as determined by the lines. In this way the ball is volleyed or knocked back and forth until one of the players fails either to return it over the net or into the required space. To fail in this counts his opponents a point. Four points constitute a game except where both sides have obtained three points, in which case one side to win must secure two points in succession.
The score is not counted as 1, 2, 3, and 4, but 15, 30, 40, game. When both sides are at 40 it is called "deuce." At this point a lead of two is necessary to win. The side winning one of the two points at this stage is said to have the "advantage," or, as it is expressed, "vantage in" or "vantage out," depending upon whether it is the side of the server or his opponents, the server's score always being called first.
A set of tennis consists of enough games to permit one side to win six, or if both are at five games won, to win two games over their opponents.

There are a great many games of "tag" that are familiar to boys and girls. One of the common games is "last tag," which simply means that a boy tags another and makes him "it" before leaving the party on his way home. It is the common boys' method of saying "good-bye" when leaving school for home. The principal rule of last tag is that there is "no tagging back." The boy who is "it" must not attempt to tag the one who tagged him, but must run after some one else. It is a point of honour with a boy not to be left with "last tag" against him, but he must try to run some one else down, when he is then immune and can watch the game in safety, or can leave for home with no blot on his escutcheon.

A form of coasting very much practised in Switzerland at the winter resorts where the sled used is similar to our American child's sled with open framework instead of a toboggan or the more modern flexible flyer which is generally used by boys in America.
A long distance race, held in connection with the Olympic Games and named from a famous event in Greek history. The accepted Marathon distance is 26 miles, 385 yards. The race was won at the Olympic Games held in England in 1908 by John Hayes, an American, in 2 hours 44 minutes 20 2-5 seconds.

The Olympic Games are open to the athletes of the world. The following events are contested for:
• 60-metre run
• 100-metre run
• 200-metre run
• 400-metre run
• 800-metre run
• 1500-metre run
• 110-metre hurdles
• 200-metre hurdles
• 400-metre hurdles
• 3200-metre steeplechase
• 2500-metre steeplechase
• 4000-metre steeplechase
• Running long jump
• Running high jump
• Running triple jump
• Standing broad jump
• Standing high jump
• Standing triple jump
• Pole vault
• Shot put
• Discus throwing
• Throwing 16-pound hammer
• Throwing 56-pound weight
• Marathon race
• Weight lifting, one hand
• Weight lifting, two hands
• Dumb-bell competition
• Tug-of-war
• Team race
• Team race 3 miles
• Five-mile run
• Throwing stone
• Throwing javelin
• Throwing javelin held in middle
• Penthathlon
• 1500-metre walk
• 3500-metre walk
• 10-mile walk
• Throwing discus Greek style

There is a large variety of games with marbles and the expressions used are universal. Boys usually have one shooter made from agate which they call a "real." To change the position of the shooter is called "roundings," and to object to this or to any other play is expressed by the word "fen." The common game of marbles is to make a rectangular ring and to shoot from a line and endeavour to knock the marbles or "mibs" of one's opponents out of the square. A similar game is to place all the mibs in a line in an oval and to roll the shooter from a distance. The one coming nearest to the oval has "first shot" and continues to shoot as long as he drives out a marble and "sticks" in the oval himself. Reals are often supposed to have superior sticking qualities. Playing marbles "for keeps" is really gambling and should be discouraged. The knuckle dabster is a small piece of cloth or leather that boys use to rest the hand on when in the act of shooting. The best kind of a "dabster" is made from a mole's skin.

The common marbles used by boys everywhere are called mibs, fivers, commies, migs, megs, alleys, and dubs. A very large marble is a bumbo and a very small one a peawee. Glass marbles are called crystals and those made of agate are called reals. The choicest real is supposed to be green and is called a "mossic" or "moss real."

This game is played with a penknife. A piece of turf is usually the best place to play. Various positions for throwing the knife are tried by each player, following a regular order of procedure, until he misses, when the knife is surrendered to the next in turn. When he receives the knife each player tries the feat at which he failed before. The last player to accomplish all the feats has the pleasure of "pulling the peg," The peg consists of a wedge-shaped piece of wood the length of the knife blade which is driven into the ground by the back of the knife and must be pulled by the teeth of the unfortunate one who was last to complete the necessary feats. The winner has the honour of driving the peg, usually three blows with his eyes open and three with them closed. If he succeeds in driving it out of sight the feat is considered especially creditable and the loser is greeted with the cry, "Root! Root!" which means that he must remove the sod and earth with his teeth before he can get a grip on the peg top. There are about twenty-four feats or "figures" to be gone through in a game of mumblety peg, throwing the knife from various positions both right and left handed. In each feat the successful result is measured by having the knife stick into the ground at such an angle so that there is room for two fingers to be inserted under the end of the handle without disturbing the knife.

This is a modified game of baseball that may be played by three or four. Generally there is only one base to run to, and besides the batter, pitcher, and catcher the rest of the players are fielders. Any one catching a fly ball puts the batter out and takes his turn at bat, or in another modification of the game, when one is put out each player advances a step nearer to batsman's position, the pitcher going in to bat, the catcher becoming pitcher, first fielder becoming catcher, and so on, the batsman becoming "last fielder."

This game may be played on a lawn. Four clothes baskets are required as well as a variety of objects of various sizes and kinds, such as spools of thread, pillows, books, matches, balls, pencils, umbrellas, pins, and so on. Two captains are chosen and each selects a team, which stands in line facing each other. Two of the baskets are filled with the various articles and these two baskets are placed at the right hand of the two captains. The empty baskets are on the opposite ends of the line. At a signal the captains select an object and pass it to the next in line. He in turn passes it to his left and finally it is dropped into the empty basket. If the object should be dropped in transit it must go back to the captain and be passed down the line again. Two umpires are desirable, who can report the progress of the game to their own side as well as keep an eye on their opponents.

A game similar to racquets, sometimes called "Jai-a-li," that is much played in Spain and in Mexico. The game is played with a narrow scoop-like wicker basket or racket which is fastened to the wrist. The players catch the ball in this device and hurl it with terrific force against the wall of the court. Pelota is a hard, fast game, and sometimes serious injuries result from playing it.

This is the universal game that boys play with tops. A ring six feet in diameter is described on the ground and each player puts a top called a "bait" in the centre. The baits are usually tops of little value. The "plugger," however, is the top used to shoot with and as a rule is the boy's choicest one. As soon as the players can wind their tops they stand with their toes on the line and endeavour to strike one of the baits in such a way as to knock it out of the circle and still leave their own tops within the circle and spinning. If they miss, the top must be left spinning until it "dies." If it fails to roll out of the ring, the owner must place another bait top in the ring, but if it leaves the circle he may continue shooting. It is possible to play tops for "keeps," but, like marbles for "keeps," it should be discouraged, as it is gambling.

A game played on horseback, which originated in Eastern countries and was first played by the English in India. It has been introduced both into England and America. Polo is a rich man's game and requires a great deal of skill in horsemanship as well as nerve. A polo team consists of four men, each of whom must have a stable of several horses. These horses, or "polo ponies," are trained carefully, and a well-trained pony is as essential to good playing as a skilful rider.
The game is played with a mallet, the head of which is usually ash, dogwood, or persimmon, and has a handle about 50 inches long. The ball is either willow or basswood. The principle of the game is similar to nearly all of the outdoor games played with a ball: that of driving it into the opponents' goal, meanwhile preventing them from making a score on one's own goal.

In this game as many rows of potatoes are laid as there are players. They should be placed about five feet apart. The race consists in picking up all of the potatoes, one at a time, and carrying them to the starting point, making a separate trip for each potato. At the end of the line there should be a basket or butter tub to drop them into. The game is sometimes made more difficult by forcing the contestants to carry the potatoes on a teaspoon.

Two captains select sides. They then mark out on the ground two bases, or homes. They also mark out two "prisons" near each home base. Then each side stands in its own home and a player runs out and advances toward the enemy's home. One of the enemy will then run out and endeavour to tag him before he can run back to his own base, and one of his side will try to tag the enemy, the rule being that each in turn must have left his home after his opponent. If a player is tagged, he becomes a prisoner of the other side and is put into the prison. The successful tagger may then return to Ids home without danger of being tagged. A prisoner may be rescued at any time if one of his side can elude the opponents and tag him free from prison. The game ends when all of one side are made prisoners.

A game usually played on foot but sometimes on horseback, in which the object is to push or force a huge ball over the opponents' goal line. A regulation "push ball" is six feet in diameter and costs three hundred dollars.
In push ball almost any number may play, but as weight counts, the sides should be divided as evenly as possible.

A game played with flattish malleable iron or rubber rings about nine inches in diameter and convex on the upper side, which the players endeavour to loss or pitch so that they will encircle a pin or peg driven into the ground, or to come nearer to this peg than their opponents. The peg is called a "hob." A certain form of quoits is played with horseshoes throughout the country districts of America. A quoit player endeavours to give the quoit such a position in mid-air that it will not roll but will cut into the ground at the point where it lands. The game is remotely similar to the ancient Greek game of throwing the discus. Iron quoits may be purchased for a dollar a set.
The average weight of the quoits used by experts is from seven to nine pounds each. Sixty-one points constitute a game. The distance from the peg shall be either 10, 15 or 18 yards. For a space three feet around the pin or peg the ground should be clay. In match games, all quoits that fall outside a radius of 18 inches from the centre of the pin are "foul," and do not count in the score.

One of the numerous court games similar to lawn tennis that is now finding public favour, but played in a semi-indoor court. A racquet court is 31 feet 6 inches wide and about 63 feet long. The front wall, against which the ball is served, has a line 8 or 10 feet from the floor, above which the ball must strike. The server, as in tennis, takes his position in a service box with a racket similar to a lawn tennis racket except that it has a smaller head and a longer handle.
Either two or four players may play racquets. A game consists of fifteen "aces," or points.

In this game, also called Red Lion, the goal must be a straight line, such as the crack in a sidewalk or the edge of a road. The one who is "it" runs after the rest as in tag, and when he has captured a prisoner he brings him into the "red line," and the two start out again hand in hand and another is captured, then three together, and two pair, and so on until all are prisoners. The first prisoner is "it" for the next game.

This game is also called Roll Ball and Nigger Baby, and is played by children all over the civilized world. A number of depressions are hollowed in the ground corresponding to the number of players and a hole is chosen by each one. A rubber ball is then rolled toward the holes, and if it lodges in one of them the boy who has claimed that hole must run in and pick up the ball while the rest scatter. He then attempts to hit one of the other players with the ball. If he succeeds a small stone called a "baby" is placed in the hole belonging to the boy struck. Otherwise the thrower is penalized with a "baby." When any boy has five babies he must stand against the wall and be a free target for the rest to throw the ball at.

This game may be called scientific croquet. A roque mallet has a dogwood head 9 1/2 inches long, with heavy nickel ferrules. Roque balls are made of a special composition that is both resilient and practically unbreakable.
A skilful roque player is able to make shots similar to billiard shots. The standard roque court is 60 feet long, 30 feet wide, with corner pieces 6 feet long. The playing ground is of clay and should be as smooth as it is possible to make it. A very light top dressing of sand is used on the clay. The wickets, or "arches," are driven into blocks of wood to secure firmness and buried into the ground with the top of the arch 8 inches above the surface.
The roque balls are 3 1/4 inches in diameter and the arches only 3 1/2 wide, which gives an idea of the difficulty of playing this game. To be an expert requires an accurate eye and a great deal of practice.
There is a National Roque Association, and an annual championship tournament is held to determine the champion. The home of roque is in the New England States.

The best amateur intercollegiate record for the eight-oared race of four miles is 18 minutes 53 1/5 seconds, made by Cornell, July 2, 1901.

This game may be played with any number of players, and is especially adapted for a school or lawn game. Two players are chosen as pursuers and the rest are divided equally and stand two by two facing each other in two columns. The two pursuers stand at the head of each column and face each other. When ready they say, "Cross the Rubicon," and at this signal the rear couple from each line must run forward and try to reach the rear of the other line. The pursuers must not look back, but as soon as the runners are abreast of them must try to tag them before they reach the place of safety. The captured runners become pursuers, and the one who was "it" takes his or her place at the rear of the other line.

A form of sport where the contestants are fastened in sacks with the hands and feet confined and where they race for a goal by jumping or hopping along at the greatest possible speed under this handicap. A sack race should not be considered one of the scientific branches of sport, but is rather to afford amusement for the spectators.

This game is based upon the song of the same name. The players form a ring, with three judges in the centre. Each player with appropriate gestures in turn begins the song,
"Scotland's burning. Scotland's burning,Look out! Look out!Fire! Fire! Fire! Fire!Pour on water! Pour on water!"
The whole party are soon singing, but each four are singing different words. The object of the judges is to detect some one in the circle either making gestures that are not appropriate to the words or to be singing out of order. The penalty is to turn around and sing with the back to the circle. The three who are facing in last then become judges.

This sport has recently received wide popularity in sections of the country where the winters make it possible. Skis—or, as they are sometimes spelled, skee,—are a pair of flat runners from five to ten feet long which are attached to the feet in such a way as to be easily cast off in case of accident. By means of skis a ski-runner may either make rapid progress over level snow or may coast down sharp declivities and make jumps of great extent.
Skis are usually made of ash and the standard lengths are from six to eight feet. They cost from five to seven dollars a pair. In skiing it is customary to use a pair of steel-shod poles with leather wrist straps, but in ski-running or coasting the use of poles is very dangerous.

In this game of leap frog various tricks are attempted by the leader, as in the game of "stump master." Each of the boys following is expected to do as the leader or to drop out and become "down" himself. "Torchlight" is to jump with one hand only, using the other to wave his cap as if it were a torch. In "hats on deck" each jumper in turn is supposed to leave his cap on "down's" back. Naturally the last one over may have a large pile of hats to clear. If he disturbs any of them or knocks them off, he is "it." "Hats off" means for each jumper in turn to take his own hat without knocking off any of the others. In all games of leap frog it is considered proper for the jumper to direct "down" to give him the kind of a "back" he desires. Consequently he will say high or low back, depending upon whether he wishes "down" to stand almost upright or to bend close to the ground.

This game is similar to racquets, but is less violent or severe on a player. It is played in a court 31 feet 6 inches wide. The front wall must be 16 feet high. The service line above which the ball must strike on the serve is 6 feet from the floor. Below this line and 2 feet from the floor is the "tell tale," above which the ball must strike in play. A squash racket is similar to a tennis racket, but slightly smaller.
In squash, a game is "fifteen up." At the score of 13 a player may "set the score" back to 3 or 5, after which the player first winning either 3 or 5 points, or aces, as they are called, is the winner. The object of this is to endeavour to overcome the advantage that the server may have.
In a regulation squash court the spectators' gallery is above the walls of the court, and the game is played in the pit below the gallery.

In this game one of the players is chosen master. It is usually the one who first suggests the game by saying. "Let's play stump master." He then leads the line of players, going through various "stumps," or, as we should call them now, "stunts," such as climbing fences and trees, turning somersaults, crawling through narrow places, or whatever will be difficult for the rest to copy. The game is capable of all sorts of variations.

This can scarcely be called a game, but the use of the sucker is so familiar to most boys that a description of it is surely not out of place in this chapter. A piece of sole leather is used, three or four inches square. It is cut into a circle and the edges carefully pared thin. A hole is made in the centre and a piece of string or top twine is knotted and run through the hole. The sucker is then soaked in water until it is soft and pliable. The object of the sucker is to lift stones or bricks with it. This, too, is of especial interest in New England towns, where there are brick sidewalks. The sucker is pressed firmly on a brick by means of the foot, and it will be found to adhere to it with sufficient force to lift it clear of the ground.

The same as tether tennis, which see.

This game has been developed out of lawn tennis. A wooden pole extending 10 feet above the surface is placed in a vertical position and firmly imbedded in the ground. The pole must be 7 1/2 inches in circumference at the ground and may taper to the top. Six feet above the ground a black band 2 inches wide is painted around the pole. The court is a smooth piece of sod or clay similar to a tennis court, but a piece of ground 20 feet square is sufficient.
At the base of the pole a circle is described with a 3-foot radius. A line 20 feet long bisects this circle, and 6 feet from the pole on each side are two crosses, which are known as service crosses.
An ordinary tennis ball is used which has been fitted with a tight-fitting linen cover. The ball is fastened to the pole by means of a piece of heavy braided line. Ordinary heavy fish line will do. The ball should hang 7 1/2 feet from the top of the pole or 2 1/2 feet from the ground. Regulation tennis rackets are used.
The game consists in endeavouring to wind the ball and string around the pole above the black mark in a direction previously determined. The opponent meanwhile tries to prevent this and to wind the ball in the opposite direction by striking it as one would volley in tennis.
Each player must keep in his own court. The points are scored as "fouls." Eleven games constitute a set. A game is won when the string is completely wound around the pole above the black mark. The penalty for a foul, such as stepping outside of one's court, allowing the string to wind around the handle of the racket or around the pole below the black mark, provides for a free hit by one's opponent.

A race in which the contestants are paired off by being strapped together at the ankles and thighs. Remarkable speed can be obtained by practice under this handicap. There are definite rules to govern three-legged races, and official harness may be bought from sporting goods outfitters. As a race, however, it is like sack racing, to be classed among the sports designed to afford amusement rather than as a display of skill.

These races are often held in shallow lakes. Each contestant sits in a wash tub, and by using his hands as paddles endeavours to paddle the course first. As a wash tub is not a particularly seaworthy craft, and spills are of frequent occurrence, it is well for the tub racers also to know how to swim.

This game is extremely simple and may be played by any number of players, provided that there is space and that the sides are evenly divided. The best dimensions for a volley ball court are 25 feet wide and 50 feet long, but any square space evenly divided into two courts will do. The game consists of twenty-one points.
The ball is made of white leather and inflated with a rubber bladder. A net divides the two courts and is 7 feet high. The standard volley ball is 27 inches in circumference and weighs between 9 and 12 ounces.
The whole object of the game is to pass the ball back and forth over the net without permitting it to touch the floor or to bound. In this way it somewhat resembles both tennis and hand ball.
Volley ball is an excellent game for gymnasiums and has the decided advantage of permitting almost any number to play.

The "warner" takes his position at a space called "home" and the rest of the players stand some distance from him. He then clasps his hands and runs out, trying to tag an opponent with his clasped hands. This would be practically impossible except that the players endeavour to make him unclasp his hands by pulling at his arms and drawing temptingly near him. As soon as he has tagged a victim he runs for home as fast as possible. If he himself is tagged before he reaches home he is out, and the tagger becomes "warner." If both the warner and the one tagged reach home safely they clasp hands, and finally the line contains all the players but one, who has the honour of being warner for the next game. The game receives its name from the call, "Warning!" which the warner gives three times before leaving home.

In this game a player stands blindfolded and another player comes up and taps him. The one who is "it" then gives a penalty, such as "climb a tree or run to the corner and back," and then tries to guess who it was that tapped him. The one tapped must answer some question so that he may be recognized by his voice or laugh. If "it" is correct in his guess, the player must do as directed, but if his guess is wrong he must do it himself. The result of this game is that the blindfolded player will measure the severity of his "forfeits," or "penalties," to his certainty of guessing correctly the name of the player.

This game is played in a swimming pool. A white ball made of rubber fabric is used. The ball must be between 7 and 8 inches in diameter. The goals are spaces 4 feet long and 12 inches wide at each end of the tank and placed 18 inches above the water line. Six men on a side constitute a team.
It is a game in which skill in swimming is absolutely essential. It is also a very rough game. The player endeavours to score goals by swimming with the ball, and his opponents are privileged to tackle him and to force him under water or in other ways to attempt to secure the ball from him. Meanwhile the other players are blocking off opponents, and in general the game resembles a football game in its rudiments.

In this game the contestants run a race carrying a glass or tin cup full of water on top of the head, which must not be touched by the hands. The one finishing first with a minimum loss of water from his cup is the winner.

A game played by two teams of four players each. The ball used is a regulation polo ball. A wicket polo surface is 44 feet square, in which sticks or wickets are set up. The object of the game is to knock down the wickets of one's opponents by a batted ball and to prevent them from displacing our own. A crooked stick 4 feet in length and a little over an inch in diameter is used. Each player has a fixed position on the field or surface.

In this game "it" is the wolf. The sheep choose a shepherd to guard them. The wolf then secures a hiding place and the sheep and shepherd leave the fold and endeavour to locate him. When this is done the shepherd cries, "I spy a wolf!" and every one stands while he counts ten. Then the sheep and shepherd scatter for the fold, and if tagged before they reach it the first becomes wolf for the next game.

In this class are also "iron tag," "stone tag," and "tree tag." They are all simply the game of tag with the additional rule that when a player is in contact with iron, stone, trees, wood, and so on he is safe from being tagged by the one who is "it." The game of "squat tag" is similar, except that to be safe the one pursued must squat quickly on the ground before "it" catches him. In cross tag, "it" must select a victim and continue to run after him until some one runs ahead and crosses his path, when "it," who may be breathless by this time, must abandon his victim for a fresh one, who may soon be relieved and so on until some one is tagged, or "it" is exhausted.
[copied from]

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6502 Posts
Posted - 17/02/2011 : 10:46
An outdoor game that we used to play which would probably lead to asbos today was to use a penkinfe or open dividers from a maths set, you stood in a circle threw the compass or knife into the ground near your neighbour and they had to put thier foot on where it had gone it, then take the knife and throw into the ground for the next person in the circle, it ended up with you doing the splits, an early version of twister i guess!

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1880 Posts
Posted - 18/02/2011 : 01:00
That  reminds me of  "Cosmo , the Fairly Accurate Knife Thrower..."

Here's a link to Les Barker......He used to have a dog called Mrs Ackroyd , that would sit passively on stage as he delivered his act....

Sadly Mrs Ackroyd is no longer with us , but I understand Les is still going...(I know he wrote a book about the dog ! ) .....


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1439 Posts
Posted - 18/02/2011 : 08:24
We used to play the knife throwing game too, we called it "splits" in Leeds, Colin says it was called "split the kipper" in his neck of the woods....Warrington way somewhere.

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1404 Posts
Posted - 18/02/2011 : 08:48
Great site Bradders, thanks.   Looks like he teaches how to do pencil drawings as well.  Cant believe it's that easy, but Conor may have some competition after the site arty people read it.Smile 

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Posted - 18/02/2011 : 10:08
As I remeber it, you were out if you overbalanced and fell over. Strange is'nt it that back when most of us lot were kids apenknife was regarded as just part of the kit for just about every small boy. A multitude of uses and never a thought of sticking it in anyone (unless by accident when playing splits). I still have my, what looks nowadays like a rather big sheath knife that used to be carried openly on my belt and taken on camping trips and the like. A bit like a Crocodile Dundee moment, that knife was a belter for playing the game. You knew about it though if you missed. Like knur and spell a good developer for hand and eye coordination. Belles right though the elf and safety and nanny state have put paid to all that innocent fun. The mere mention of a penknife can get you banged up nowadays, ridiculous!

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Don Don
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Posted - 18/02/2011 : 11:08
Canon was a good game. Need four dollypegs and a ball. Two teams
Place the dolly pegs up against the curb or a wall like wickets.  The aim of the game is the 'batters' have tothe pegs  get  all the pegs down.  Once they have knocked them down run like hell then try and build them up again before the oppostion get you out by hitting you with the ball. If you are all stubbed out with the ball before the cannon is built up again then the other side gets a turn at the cannon. Good energetic fun. Something to try with the grandkids and kids on our street this summer. I used to love it.

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Posted - 18/02/2011 : 11:21
Same vein as "Relieve-O" and "Kick the Can". We used the lamppost at the bottom of the street as "home", nowhere to hide on the approach. Trickery and stealth were the name of the game, good stuff!

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941 Posts
Posted - 21/02/2011 : 03:01
As kids, a game we used to play - can't remember whether it had a name - was to tie a string to the handles of the doors of two adjacent houses in the terrace, slightly open one of the doors, knock on the other and run like hell.  Of course when the door on which we knocked was opened, the other slammed shut


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669 Posts
Posted - 22/02/2011 : 01:30
Sounds like a variation of knockadoor run. When I was in Oxford, we used to play Aunt Sally. This game was usually played in pub gardens on Sunday afternoon, but there was also a league table for competing pubs and clubs.

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Posted - 24/02/2011 : 03:42
Is this the game I saw in an episode of Midsomer Murders? ...... DCI Barnaby and Sgt. Troy made up the numbers for a team which was short of regular players ...... At one end a skittle-like object was placed on a post and at the other end the player stood with six wooden batons, throwing one at a time, underarm, with the object of cleanly knocking the object off the post.


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Posted - 24/02/2011 : 16:41
It's getting spooky again!  Of all the dozens of episodes of Midsummer Murders, that particular one is on TV right now! Didn't catch the name of the game though.

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Posted - 24/02/2011 : 16:54

tripps wrote:
It's getting spooky again!  Of all the dozens of episodes of Midsummer Murders, that particular one is on TV right now! Didn't catch the name of the game though.

PS   -  Yes it is called "Aunt Sally"

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Posted - 25/02/2011 : 00:36
Thats exactly right. Aunt Sally.

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Posted - 26/06/2011 : 16:28
65 odd years ago in Yorkshire we played a game called "piggy" ?  a cylindrical piece of wood 1 1/2" dia x 2 " long tapered at one end, you hit the taper and the piggy went up, you then hit it  as hard as you could, then gave your opponent a number of strides to reach wher the piggy landed. not sure of the scoring system now, but it involved running and  jumping into the longest strides that you could achieve ?

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Posted - 26/06/2011 : 17:40
A variant of Nipsy or Knur and Spell but with improvised tackle (broomhandle). Played similar as a lad but used any old bat, a short length of wood to hit and a brick to balance it on for the first tap before you hit it. Can't remember striding to where it fell. Just scored on who could whack it furthest. Did'nt we have fun and all without it costing a couple of hundred quid and involving a TV. Just waiting for my grandchildren to get a bit bigger, can't wait to introduce them to beck jumping.

Edited by - panbiker on 26/06/2011 17:41:49

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